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Excerpts — Cutting-Edge Cycling

Track fitness changes over time with a heart rate monitor

Cardiac output is simply heart rate multiplied by stroke volume; the latter is the volume of blood pumped with each heart beat.

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It is important to recognize overtraining

Because overtraining affects the physical responses to training and adaptation, the body must also contend with a wide array of psychosocial stressors, from sports-related (team dynamics, coaches) and environmental (frequent travel, altitude) challenges to personal (relationship, work, financial) issues.

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When to use standing versus seated pedaling

The first and most obvious weight-bearing exercise is running.

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