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EuropeActive's Foundations for Exercise Professionals

EuropeActive's Foundations for Exercise Professionals


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    EuropeActive’s Foundations for Exercise Professionals provides core knowledge and industry standards to help exercise professionals serve their clients. Endorsed by EuropeActive, the continent’s leading standard-setting organisation in fitness and health, this text is an authoritative guide for current and future exercise professionals and training providers in Europe.

    The book uses scientific foundations to cover concepts and hands-on skills that promote best practices in exercise instruction and training. The content applies to all levels of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) and associated job titles—the only resource to do so—and matches the core information for EQF levels 3 and 4. Thus, this instructional guide ensures smooth movement and work transfers among employers, educational institutions and countries in Europe.

    Written by renowned experts in exercise and sport sciences and framed in the European Register of Exercise Professionals’ Code of Ethical Practice for exercise professionals, the text offers several practical features for readers:
    • Easy-to-apply instruction accompanied by 88 full-colour photos and 68 illustrations offer an ideal visual learning experience.
    • Complete descriptions and images detail proper form for common free-weight and machine-resistance training exercises.
    • Explanations and recommendations are included for the most popular cardiorespiratory exercise equipment.
    • Official nutrition recommendations prepare professionals to address clients’ concerns.
    • The complete Code of Ethical Practice serves as a guide for all exercise professionals in Europe.
    EuropeActive’s Foundations for Exercise Professionals begins by covering the bones, joints, muscles and cardiovascular system to ensure a proper understanding of the body’s movement and physiology. Readers then learn the components of exercise theory and prescription, including energy systems; body composition; resistance, aerobic and flexibility training; warm-up and cool-down; and the principle of progression. The book helps professionals become role models in the industry with information on managing lifestyle through physical activity, health, nutrition, hydration and safety. After gaining foundational knowledge, readers will look closer at the role of the exercise professional, starting with building rapport, motivating, screening and assessing clients. The final chapters discuss the basic aspects of training: exercise technique using weight machines, free weights and cardiorespiratory equipment.

    Both aspiring and qualified exercise professionals should keep abreast of foundational information about all areas of the health and fitness sector in order to properly serve the industry and their clients. EuropeActive’s Foundations for Exercise Professionals is an ideal reference for promoting physical activity, making lifestyles healthier and guiding clients toward their fitness goals.


    A resource for individuals working toward the reference levels of the European Qualifications Framework and exercise professionals striving to comply with the latest industry standards and best practices.

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1. Bones and Joints
    Marco Branco and Rita Santos-Rocha
    Major Bones and Joints
    Types of Bones and Joints
    Structure and Function of the Skeleton
    Structure and Function of the Spine
    Movements at the Three Main Spinal Curves
    Stability and Movement Within Each Type of Joint
    Chapter 2. Muscles
    Anders Nedergaard
    Skeletal Muscle Biology
    Smooth Muscle
    Cardiac Muscle
    Chapter 3. Muscle Action
    Daniel Robbins and Edzard Zeinstra
    Types of Muscle Actions
    Neuromuscular Physiology
    Muscles and Movement
    Muscles and Force Generation
    Chapter 4. Heart, Lungs and Circulation
    Andrea Ermolao and Marco Bergamin
    Mechanics of Breathing
    Heart and Cardiovascular System
    Blood Pressure and the Effects of Exercise
    Short and Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Heart, Lungs and Circulatory System
    Chapter 5. Energy Systems
    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, José Antonio de Paz, and Fernando Naclerio
    Three Energy Systems That Produce ATP
    Oxygen Uptake, V\od\O2max and Excess of Oxygen Uptake
    Effects of Intensity and Duration on Energy System and Fuel Interaction During Physical Activity
    Chapter 6. Components and Principles of Fitness
    Eliseo Iglesias-Soler and Mark Chapman
    Physical Fitness and Health-Related Fitness
    Relationship Among Physical Activity and Exercise, Health Related Fitness and Health
    Chapter 7. Resistance Training
    Fernando Naclerio and Jeremy Moody
    Muscle Action and Type of Contraction
    Muscular Strength and Repetition Maximum Continuum
    Overload Principle Applied to Muscular Strength
    Common Resistance Training Methods and Systems
    Muscle-Group Split Routines
    Chapter 8. Aerobic Training
    Jonathan Esteve-Lanao, Roberto Cejuela Anta, and Claudia Cardona González
    Physiological and Health-Related Changes From Aerobic Training
    Benefits of Aerobic Training
    Continuous and Interval Aerobic Training
    Types of Activities in Endurance Training
    Overload Principle Applied to Aerobic Training
    Application of All Training Principles to Aerobic Training
    Methods of Intensity Monitoring
    Exercise Session Structure
    Cardiorespiratory Training Systems
    Periodisation and Training Load Quantification
    Chapter 9. Flexibility Training
    Jagdeep Singh Matharoo
    Range-of-Motion Continuum
    Physiological and Health-Related Changes From Stretching
    Types of Flexibility Exercises
    Methods for Training Flexibility
    Stretch Reflex, Desensitisation and Lengthening of Muscle Tissue (Muscle Creep)
    FITTA Principle Applied to Stretching
    Factors Affecting Potential Range of Motion
    Chapter 10. Body Composition
    Elvis A. Carnero and Manuel A. Giráldez García
    Hierarchical Organisation for the Study of Body Composition
    Body-Composition Measurement
    BIA and Anthropometry
    Factors Affecting Body Composition
    Chapter 11. Warm-Up and Cool-Down
    Bettina Karsten and Xurxo Dopico
    Definition of Warm-Up and Cool-Down
    Types of Warm-Ups
    Physiological Effects
    Duration and Intensity Recommendations
    Chapter 12. Progression
    Ian Jeffreys
    Homeostasis in the Body
    General Adaptation Syndrome
    Chapter 13. Promoting Physical Activity and Health
    Steven Mann and Alfonso Jiménez
    Impaired Fasting Glucose
    Barriers and Motivators for Physical Activity and Exercise
    Chapter 14. Basic Nutrition and Hydration Guidelines
    Robert Cooper and Judith Allgrove
    Energy Expenditure
    Body Composition
    Dehydration and Physical Activity
    Hydration Strategies
    Official Nutrition Recommendations
    Chapter 15. Safe and Effective Exercise
    Rita Santos-Rocha and Nuno Pimenta
    Exercise as Mechanical and Metabolic Stimuli
    Risks Associated With Exercise
    Preliminary Health Screening and Risk Assessment
    Chapter 16. Body Awareness and Exercise Technique
    Vera Simões and Rita Santos Rocha
    Being a Role Model in Exercise Performance and Technique
    Correcting Posture and Body Alignment, Range of Motion, Control, Timing and Form
    Chapter 17. Building Rapport and Customer Care
    Thomas Rieger
    Understanding Intimacy as a Key Requirement
    Dimensions of Rapport
    Methods of Building Rapport
    Chapter 18. Motivating the Exerciser
    Jeremy Moody and Jack Davies
    Motives to Exercise
    Behavioural Strategies to Enhance Exercise and Health Behaviour Change
    Transtheoretical Model
    Chapter 19. Screening and Assessing
    Jeremy Moody and Ryan Stevens
    Evaluation of Fitness Components
    Screening and Assessing for Medical History
    Psychological Aspects of Fitness
    Chapter 20. Resistance Exercise Using Machines
    Roger Earle
    Terms and Definitions
    Practical Guidelines for Teaching Resistance Training Exercises Using Machines
    Technique Guidelines
    Additional Machine Exercises
    Chapter 21. Resistance Exercise Using Free Weights
    Roger Earle
    Terms and Definitions
    Safe and Effective Spotting Techniques
    Practical Guidelines for Teaching Resistance Training Exercises Using Free Weights
    Technique Guidelines
    Additional Free-Weight Exercises
    Chapter 22. Cardiorespiratory Exercise
    Henk Jan Thoes and Riccardo Marini
    Upright Bike
    Recumbent Bike
    Linear-Stride Cross-Trainer
    Variable-Stride Cross-Trainer
    Lateral-Movement Cross-Trainer
    Upper-Body Ergometer

    Appendix. European Register of Exercise Professionals Code of Ethical Practice

    About EuropeActive

    About the Editor

    About EuropeActive

    The European Register of Exercise Professionals (EREPS) uses the EuropeActive standards to ensure that exercise professionals are qualified to offer safe and effective fitness programmes to their clients all across Europe. EREPS provides consumers, employers and partners in medical professions with confidence so that registered trainers are competent and work to support its Code of Ethical Practice, which defines the rights and principles of exercise professionals. Referencing the EuropeActive standards to each trainer and being registered mean that they have met the minimum standards of good practice and that they are committed to raising the standards of their skills and professional status through a process of lifelong learning.

    EREPS is regulated by the EuropeActive Standards Council using the official European Qualifications Framework, which describes the knowledge, skills and competencies exercise professionals need to achieve for registration.

    About the Editors

    Thomas Rieger is the chairman of the standards council of EuropeActive. He holds a doctoral degree in social sciences with a specialization in sport science (German PhD equivalent) from the University of Tübingen and a master’s degree in public health. In 2007, he was appointed as a professor of sport management at the Business and Information Technology School (BiTS) in Iserlohn, Germany. At BiTS, he is the vice dean of the bachelor’s programme of sport and event management and the MSc programme of international sport and event management. Previously, Dr. Rieger served as the visiting professor at the Real Madrid Graduate School and the European University Cyprus in Nicosia. Before entering academia in 2006, he gained more than six years of experience in the fitness industry, especially in the fields of fitness marketing and quality management.

    Fernando Naclerio is the principal lecturer in strength training and sport nutrition and the MSc programme leader of strength and conditioning at the Centre for Sports Science and Human Performance at the University of Greenwich, UK. He is a strength and conditioning coach (CSCS-NSCA) and a certified international society sport nutritionist (CISSN). Dr. Naclerio has more than 30 years of experience as a coach, consultant and academic in many countries in Europe and South America. He has published five books, multiple book chapters and more than 100 scientific papers on training and sport nutrition. Dr. Naclerio’s research is currently focused on the effects of resistance training and nutrition strategies on performance, injury prevention and muscle structure as well as morphology in children, adolescents and older adults.

    Alfonso Jiménez, PhD, CSCS, NSCA-CPT, FLF, is a professor of exercise and health and the faculty dean of the health, exercise and sport sciences department at European University of Madrid (Spain) and a member of the scientific advisory board of UKActive Research Institute. Dr. Jiménez holds a visiting professorial appointment at Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia, as the international research associate. He is the chair of the Fitness Australia/ISEAL research programme and scientific advisory committee at the University of Greenwich in London. During the time that he was head of school and deputy dean at Victoria University, Dr. Jiménezz served as a professor and head of the Centre for Sports Sciences and Human Performance at the University of Greenwich. From 2009 to 2012, Professor Jiménez was the chairman of the standards council of EuropeActive, which at the time was called the European Health & Fitness Association. He was awarded honorary membership in recognition of his outstanding service. Dr. Jiménez’s background before entering academia centred on the fitness industry in management, research and sales.

    Jeremy Moody is the MSc programme director for strength and conditioning at Cardiff Metropolitan University in Wales, UK, and a frequent national and international speaker in the fields of strength and conditioning and elite sport performance management. Dr. Moody’s experience extends across many able-bodied and disabled sports, and he has worked with many successful athletes at the Commonwealth, European, World, Olympic and Paralympic levels of competition as well as with many youth and developing athletes. Previously, he was the performance director for Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby and the Welsh Judo Association, a senior performance manager for UK Athletics and a regional lead strength and conditioning coach for the English Institute of Sport.