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Physical Activity and Health-2nd Edition

Physical Activity and Health-2nd Edition

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    Book

    The human body is designed for activity. For most of our history, physical activity was required for survival, but technological advances have eliminated much of the need for hard physical labor. As our activity levels have dropped, it has become clear that a physically inactive lifestyle can lead to a host of health problems. Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive treatment of the research on the benefits of a physically active lifestyle in comparison with the harmful consequences of physical inactivity.

    Written by leading scientists from the United States, Canada, Europe, and Australia, Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, brings together the results of the most important studies on the relationship between physical activity, sedentarism, and various health outcomes. The second edition has been fully updated based on the latest advances in this rapidly changing field and expanded to include the following new content:

    • A chapter on the physiology of inactivity and the effects of sedentary behavior even in people who engage in appropriate amounts of physical activity, which is an area of growing interest

    • More extensive coverage of physical activity, aging, and the brain, including a new chapter on the relationship between physical activity and brain structures and functions

    • A chapter on the development of national and international physical activity and health guidelines, which will help readers better understand how scientific findings are converted into practical recommendations

    Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, offers a detailed yet concise presentation of key concepts as well as a framework to help readers relate results from single studies or collections of studies to the overall paradigm linking physical activity and physical fitness to health. For each of the topics covered, the text provides an overview of the most important research findings, discusses the limitations of the current knowledge base, and identifies directions for future investigation.

    At the core of the text is a review of our current understanding of how physical activity affects health concerns such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity as well as aging and mental health. The text identifies sedentary living habits and poor fitness as major public health problems and examines the potential of physical activity to prevent disease and enhance quality of life. This complete resource also looks at the evolution of the field of physical activity and health; variations in physical activity levels across age, sex, and ethnic groups; the body’s physiological responses to physical activity; dose-response issues; and the influence of genetics on physical activity, fitness, and health. The book ends with an integration of the issues covered and discusses new opportunities for research.

    The second edition of Physical Activity and Health continues to offer clear, user-friendly coverage of the most important concepts and research in the field. Numerous special features will aid readers in their comprehension of the material. Chapter outlines and callout boxes help readers key in on important topics and focus their reading, and chapter summaries, definitions of key terms, and study questions provide tools for review and self-testing. Commonly used acronyms and abbreviations are found on the interior covers for handy reference.

    Where other books have simply promoted physical activity for the individual or a population, Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, completely integrates current knowledge of the relationship between physical activity and health. With contributions from some of the finest scientists in the field, this comprehensive text offers information unmatched in accuracy and reliability.

    Audience

    A textbook for upper-undergraduate and graduate students in kinesiology, exercise science, physical education, public health, health promotion, preventive medicine, and human biology. A reference for professionals.

    Table of Contents

    Part I: History and Current Status of the Study of Physical Activity and Health

    Chapter 1: Why Study Physical Activity and Health?

    Claude Bouchard, PhD; Steven N. Blair, PED; and William L. Haskell, PhD

    Human Evolution, History, and Physical Activity

    Burden of Chronic Diseases

    Health and Its Determinants

    Aging and Health

    Defining Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    Physical Inactivity Versus Physical Activity

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 2: Historical Perspectives on Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health

    Russell R. Pate, PhD

    Early Beliefs About Physical Activity and Health

    Scientific Inquiry on Exercise and Health

    Evolution of Physical Activity Guidelines

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 3: Physical Activity and Fitness With Age, Sex, and Ethnic Differences

    Peter T. Katzmarzyk, PhD, FACSM

    Physical Activity

    Physical Fitness

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 4: Sedentary Behavior and Inactivity Physiology

    Marc Hamilton, PhD; and Neville Owen, PhD

    Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Public Health

    Inactivity Physiology: The Underlying Biology of Acute and Chronic Muscular Inactivity

    Sedentary Behavior and Metabolic Health: Emerging Epidemiological Evidence

    Humans May Not Have Reached the Pinnacle of Physical Inactivity

    A Comprehensive Sedentary Behavior Research Agenda

    Public Health Implications

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Part II: Effects of Physical Activity on the Human Organism

    Chapter 5: Metabolic, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity

    Edward T. Howley, PhD

    Relationship of Energy to Physical Activity

    Oxygen Consumption and Cardiovascular and Respiratory Responses to Exercise

    Effect of Training, Age, and Gender on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    Application to Exercise Training and Physical Activity Interventions

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 6: Acute Responses to Physical Activity and Exercise

    Adrianne E. Hardman, MSc, PhD

    Lipids and Lipoproteins

    Endothelial Function

    Insulin–Glucose Dynamics

    Blood Pressure

    Hematological Changes

    Immune Function and Inflammation

    Responses Related to Energy Balance

    Augmentation of Acute Effects by Training

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 7: Hormonal Response to Regular Physical Activity

    Peter A. Farrell, PhD

    Defining Hormones

    Importance of Hormonal Regulation

    Regular Physical Activity and Hormonal Adaptations

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 8: Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Regular Physical Activity

    Howard J. Green, PhD

    Skeletal Muscle and Human Survival

    Muscle Cell: Composition, Structure, and Function

    Muscle Fiber Types and Subtypes

    Muscle Adaptation and Functional Consequences

    Aging Muscle: The Role of Training

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 9: Response of Liver, Kidney, and Other Organs and Tissues to Regular Physical Activity

    Roy J. Shephard, MB, BS, MD (London), PhD, DPE

    Acute Effects of Physical Activity

    Chronic Effects of Physical Activity

    Strengths and Limitations of the Current Evidence

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Part III: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health

    Chapter 10: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Mortality Rates

    Michael J. LaMonte, PhD; and Steven N. Blair, PED

    Physical Activity and Mortality

    Fitness and Mortality

    Activity or Fitness and Mortality in Adults With Existing Diseases

    Quantifying the Population Mortality Burden of Inactivity

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 11: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cardiac, Vascular, and Pulmonary Morbidities

    Ian Janssen, PhD

    Low Physical Activity and Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Morbidities

    Low Physical Activity and Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness as Risk Factors for Pulmonary Morbidities

    Biological Mechanisms

    Role of Physical Activity in Patients with Cardiac, Vascular, and Pulmonary Morbidities

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 12: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Obesity

    Robert Ross, PhD; and Ian Janssen, PhD

    Definition and Problem of Overweight and Obesity

    Fat Depots

    Relationships Among Excess Weight, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    Role of Physical Activity in Prevention and Treatment of Excess Weight

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 13: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Diabetes Mellitus

    R. Jan-Willem Middelbeek, MD, MS; Oscar Alcazar, PhD; and Laurie J. Goodyear, PhD

    Diabetes: Definitions and Prevalence

    Epidemiology, Etiology, and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes

    Impact of Physical Activity on Insulin and Glucose Metabolism

    Epidemiological Evidence Indicating Benefits of Physical Activity in Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Summary of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

    Importance of Regular Physical Activity for People With Type 2 Diabetes

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 14: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cancer

    I-Min Lee, MBBS, ScD

    Importance of Cancer

    How Physical Activity and Physical Fitness Decrease the Risk of Developing Cancer

    How We Study Whether Physical Activity and Physical Fitness Decrease the Risk of Developing Cancer

    Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Site-Specific Cancers

    Physical Activity and Cancer Survivors

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 15: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Joint and Bone Health

    Jennifer Hootman, PhD, ATC, FACSM, FNATA

    Scientific Evidence

    Strengths and Limitations of the Evidence

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 16: Physical Activity, Muscular Fitness, and Health

    Neil McCartney, PhD; and Stuart Phillips, PhD

    History of Resistance Training and Its Role in Health

    Fundamental Aspects of Resistance Training

    Resistance Training Throughout the Life Span

    Resistance Training in Disease and Disability

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 17: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Children

    Thomas Rowland, MD

    Understanding the Exercise–Health Link in Children

    Defining the Kinds and Amount of Physical Activities for Health

    Optimal Intervention Strategies

    Biological Effects on Physical Activity in Youth

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 18: Risks of Physical Activity

    Evert A.L.M. Verhagen, PhD; Esther M.F. van Sluijs, PhD; and Willem van Mechelen, MD, PhD

    Risks of Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    Minimizing Risk and Maximizing Benefits

    Recommendations for Future Research

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Part IV: Physical Activity, Fitness, Aging, and Brain Functions

    Chapter 19: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Aging

    Loretta DiPietro, PhD, MPH

    The Aging Process

    Methodological Considerations in Aging Research

    Demographics of Physical Activity Among Older Adults

    Dimensions of Physical Activity and Their Relationship to Health and Function in Aging

    Programmatic Issues in Promoting Physical Activity in Older Populations

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 20: Physical Activity and Brain Functions

    Kirk I. Erickson, PhD

    Descriptive Questions

    Mechanistic Questions

    Applied Questions: Populations Benefiting From Physical Activity

    Moderating Questions: Factors Moderating the Effect of Physical Activity

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 21: Exercise and Its Effects on Mental Health

    John S. Raglin, PhD; and Gregory S. Wilson, PED, FACSM

    Research Paradigms of Exercise and Mental Health Research

    Exercise and Depression

    Exercise and Anxiety

    Exercise and Schizophrenia

    Putative Mechanisms for the Psychological Benefits of Exercise

    Detrimental Psychological Responses to Exercise: The Overtraining Syndrome

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Part V: How Much Is Required and How Do We Get There?

    Chapter 22: Dose–Response Issues in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health

    William L. Haskell, PhD

    Principles Guiding the Body’s Response to Activity

    Components of the Physical Activity Dose

    Factors Determining Optimal Activity Dose

    Physical Activity and Fitness: Dose for Health Benefits

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 23: From Science to Physical Activity Guidelines

    Mark S. Tremblay, PhD; and William L. Haskell, PhD

    Stages of Physical Activity Guideline Development

    Strengths, Limitations, and Challenges

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Part VI: New Challenges and Opportunities

    Chapter 24: Genetic Differences in the Relationships Among Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health

    Tuomo Rankinen, PhD; and Claude Bouchard, PhD

    Basics of Human Genetics

    Events in Human Genes and Genomes

    Genetic Variation in Exercise Traits Among Sedentary People

    Genetics of Physical Activity Level

    Individual Differences in Response to Regular Exercise

    Genes and Responses to Exercise

    Trait-Specific Response to Exercise

    Personalized Exercise Medicine

    Summary

    Review Materials

    Chapter 25: An Integrated View of Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health

    William L. Haskell, PhD; Steven N. Blair, PED; and Claude Bouchard, PhD

    Physical Activity Versus Inactivity: Universal Value Versus Damaging Consequences

    Developing and Implementing Physical Activity Plans

    Research Questions and Issues

    Summary

    Review Materials

    About the Editor

    Claude Bouchard, PhD, is the director of the Human Genomics Laboratory at Pennington Biomedical Research Center, a campus of the Louisiana State University System, where he also holds the John W. Barton Sr. chair in genetics and nutrition. He was director of the Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory at Laval University, Quebec City, Canada, for over 20 years. Dr. Bouchard holds a BPed from Laval University, an MSc in exercise physiology from the University of Oregon at Eugene, and a PhD in population genetics from the University of Texas at Austin.

    For four decades, his research has dealt with the role of physical activity, and the lack thereof, on physiology, metabolism, and indicators of health, taking into account genetic uniqueness. He has performed research on the contributions of gene sequence variation and the benefits to be expected from regular activity in terms of changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors

    Dr. Bouchard has served as program leader for four consensus conferences and symposia pertaining to various aspects of physical activity and health. He has published more than 1,000 scientific papers and has edited several books and monographs dealing with physical activity and health.

    Dr. Bouchard is the recipient of the Willendorf Award from the International Association for the Study of Obesity, the Sandoz Award from the Canadian Atherosclerosis Society, the Albert Creff Award of the National Academy of Medicine of France, and four honoris causa doctorates (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, University of South Carolina, University of Guelph, and Brock University). He is a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium and a member of the Order of Canada.

    Dr. Bouchard is former president of the Canadian Society for Applied Physiology, the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, and the International Association for the Study of Obesity. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Nutrition, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

    Steven N. Blair, PED, is a professor at the Arnold School of Public Health at the University of South Carolina in Columbia. His research focuses on the associations between lifestyle and health, with a specific emphasis on exercise, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic disease. As one of the most highly cited exercise scientists currently active in research, Dr. Blair has published more than 550 articles, chapters, and books in scientific and professional literature. He also was the senior scientific editor for the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health.

    Dr. Blair has received numerous awards, including the Honor Award from the American College of Sports Medicine, Population Science Award from the American Heart Association, U.S. Surgeon General’s Medallion, Folksam Epidemiology Prize from the Karolinska Institute of Stockholm, and a MERIT award from the National Institutes of Health. He also has received honorary doctoral degrees from universities in the United States, Belgium, and England.

    Dr. Blair is a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology, Society of Behavioral Medicine, American College of Sports Medicine, American Heart Association, and American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education. He was also electedd to membership in the American Epidemiological Society. He was the first president of the National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity and is a past president of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education.

    William L. Haskell, PhD, is emeritus professor of medicine in the Stanford Prevention Research Center and the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine. He holds an honorary MD degree from Linkoping University in Sweden.

    For more than 40 years, his research has investigated the relationships between physical activity and health. He has been involved at the national and international levels in the development of physical activity and fitness guidelines and recommendations for physical activity in health promotion and disease prevention.

    Dr. Haskell has served as principal investigator on major NIH-funded research projects demonstrating the health benefits of physical activity. For the past 17 years, he has been a member of the planning committee and faculty for the CDC-sponsored research course on physical activity and public health. From 1968 to 1970, he was program director for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. He also served as chair of the Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which documented the scientific basis for the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. From 2008 to 2010 he was a scientific advisor to the World Health Organization for the development of Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health (2010) and to the United Kingdom Health Ministries for the development of physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines for the home countries. Currently he is chair of the International Review Panel for the Evaluation of Exercise and Sports Sciences in the Nordic Countries.

    He is past president of the American College of Sports Medicine and founder and past president of the American College of Sports Medicine Foundation. He was a fellow with the Exercise and Rehabilitation Council, American Heart Association, and American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation.

    Reviews

    “With the vast number of topics it covers as well as the examples of the practical application of the underlying principles it presents, this book is an excellent learning and teaching resource.”

    -- Doody’s Book Review (5 star review)