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Schoolwide Physical Activity

Schoolwide Physical Activity


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    Physical activity doesn’t have to be confined to physical education class. Many schools are discovering the benefits of incorporating physical activity throughout the day. In fact, schools increasingly need to do so as requirements for weekly minutes of physical activity expand beyond the time available for physical education class.

    With Schoolwide Physical Activity: A Comprehensive Guide to Designing and Conducting Programs, K-12 classroom teachers and administrators will learn how to design and conduct activity programs that not only meet wellness policy requirements and goals but also motivate and encourage all students to be physically active.

    The premise of this innovative guide is that physical activity in schools is not the sole responsibility of the PE teacher. It is the responsibility of all administrators and teachers—and is most successful when it is integrated throughout the curriculum.

    To that end, Schoolwide Physical Activity highlights the role of elementary classroom teachers in providing opportunities for physical activity, and it offers an array of tools and programs for teachers to incorporate in their classrooms. At the secondary level, the book creates a vision of a good physical activity program and then shows secondary teachers and administrators how to achieve that vision. Through this text, teachers and administrators receive
    • a blueprint for building a comprehensive and coordinated K-12 physical activity program;
    • ready-to-use activities and forms; and
    • program ideas that address both the needs and desires of all children, not just the small percentage who gravitate toward physical activity.
    Schoolwide Physical Activity comes with a CD-ROM that contains all the printable activities, forms, and tools from the book and over 200 activities for classroom teachers, inclusive transitional activities, integrated lessons, and simple games and dances. The comprehensive guide includes a Web site with an instructor guide, presentation package, and test package.

    This resource will help teachers and administrators see their roles and responsibilities in a new light and gain stakeholder support for wellness and activity programs, and it will assist in coordinating efforts among all involved in providing students with safe and appropriate programs that will transform their schools into more active places for learning.

    Table of Contents

    CD-ROM Contents

    Part I: Introduction
    Chapter 1. Physical Activity and the School Program
    The Problem
    The Contributions of Physical Activity
    Physical Activity, Exercise, and Fitness
    Factors That Affect Physical Activity
    National Recommendations for Physical Activity
    The Solution
    Physical Education and the School Physical Activity Program
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 2. The School Wellness Program and Physical Activity
    State-, District-, and School-Level Response
    Gaining Stakeholder Support
    The Role of School Administrators and Teachers
    Developing a School Wellness Plan
    Successful Ideas for a School Wellness Program
    Barriers and Common Struggles in Implementing School Wellness Programs
    Checking Your Understanding

    Part II: The Elementary Physical Activity Program
    Chapter 3. Quality Elementary Physical Education
    The Role of the School Administration in the Physical Education Program
    The Role and Responsibilities of the Physical Education Teacher in the School Physical Activity Program
    Physical Education’s Contribution to the Domains of Learning
    Curriculum Scope and Sequence
    Factors That Affect the Development of Motor Skills
    Developmentally Appropriate and Age-Related Curriculum
    Movement Concepts
    Locomotor Skills
    Manipulative and Game Skills
    Educational Gymnastics
    Educational Dance Experiences
    Organizing and Managing the Physical Education Learning Environment
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 4. The Elementary School Physical Activity Program
    The Need for Physical Activity for Elementary-Aged Children
    A Word of Caution: Short-Term Versus Long-Term Effects
    What Is a Comprehensive Elementary School Physical Activity Program?
    The School Physical Activity Program: Who’s Responsible?
    Designing and Maintaining Safe and Age-Appropriate Playgrounds and Outdoor Areas
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 5. The Role of the Classroom Teacher in Physical Activity Programs
    Providing Opportunities for Physical Activity
    Physical Activity as a Routine
    Promoting Physically Active Lifestyles
    Promoting Quality Health and Nutritional Habits
    Working With the School Wellness Committee
    Being a Physically Active and Healthy Role Model
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 6. Recess
    Contributions of Recess
    Recommendations of Policy Groups for Recess
    Encouraging Active Play
    Scheduling Recess
    Teaching Children Playground Games
    Equipment for Recess
    Designating Play Areas
    Supervising the Playground
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 7. Games in the Elementary School
    Games in Physical Education Class
    Low Organization Games for the Physical Activity Program
    Factors That Affect the Selection of Appropriate and Safe Experiences for Children
    Modifying Games
    Child-Designed Games
    Organizing and Conducting Games
    Additional Game Opportunities
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 8. Teaching Dance and Rhythms
    Folk Dance
    Line Dancing
    Creative Dance
    Coordinating Dances to Enhance Grade-Level Curriculum
    Handling the Management Issues Related to Dance
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 9. Fitness for the Elementary School Child
    What Is Physical Fitness?
    Exercise Principles for Developing Fitness
    Harmful Exercises and Safe Alternatives
    Approaching Fitness Positively
    Health-Related Fitness Testing
    Appropriate Fitness Activities for Children
    Creating a Safe and Supportive Environment
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 10. Administering the Elementary School Physical Activity Program
    Who Is Responsible for the Physical Activity Program of the School?
    Analyzing the Opportunities for Participation and the Level of Participation
    Scheduling Activities of the Program
    Planning the Program
    Staffing the Program
    Reinforcing Participation
    Evaluating Your Program
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 11. Programs Before, During, and After School and Special Events
    To Structure or Not to Structure
    Administrative Duties of the Program
    Providing a Variety of Opportunities
    Planning Events in Advance
    Checking Your Understanding

    Part III: The Secondary Physical Activity Program
    Chapter 12. The Comprehensive Physical Activity Program for the Secondary School
    What Are the Needs of the Secondary Student?
    How Did We Get Here?
    School Wellness Policies
    The School Physical Activity Program: Physical Education
    The School Physical Activity Program: Interscholastic Sport
    Scheduling the Physical Activity Program
    Involving the Community and Mandating Physical Activity
    The School Physical Activity Program: A Comprehensive Perspective
    The Physical Activity Director of the Secondary Program
    Administrative Support
    One Size Does Not Fit All
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 13. Planning the Secondary Physical Activity Program
    The Goals of an Inclusive Program
    Determining Student Needs and Interests
    What Facilities Do We Have and Need?
    What Equipment Do I Need?
    Structuring the Program
    Staffing the Physical Activity Program
    Promoting the Program
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 14. Administering the Physical Activity Program
    Establishing a Required Program
    Administering Required and Voluntary Physical Activity Programs
    Establishing an Awards System
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 15. Conducting Intramural Sports
    When to Hold Intramurals?
    Modifying Play
    Student Leadership
    Organizing the Competition
    Standards for Participant Behavior
    Checking Your Understanding

    Chapter 16. Conducting Secondary Heath-Related Fitness Programs
    Components of Health-Related Fitness
    Programming for Secondary Fitness Activities
    Leadership for the Fitness Components of the Program
    Checking Your Understanding

    Part IV: Wellness Programs
    Chapter 17. Parent, Staff, and Faculty Physical Activity Programs
    What Is a School Staff, Faculty, and Parent Wellness Program?
    Working With the Adult Population
    Family Programs
    Checking Your Understanding
    Family Fitness Resources
    Web Sites

    About the Authors
    CD-ROM User Instructions

    About the Author

    Judith E. Rink, PhD, began her career as an elementary physical education teacher in 1965. She is a professor in the physical education department at the University of South Carolina, where she taught for nearly 30 years and served as department chair for more than 10 years. She has received numerous awards throughout her career, including the Teacher Educator Honor Award from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) in 2007 and the NASPE Hall of Fame Award in 2000.


    Rink has authored or coauthored six other physical education and physical activity books and has written dozens of articles for refereed publications. She has presented numerous papers at state, national, and international conferences, and she serves as the South Carolina physical education assessment program director. She also serves on the NASPE Assessment Task Force and served on NASPE’s board of directors from 2003 to 2006.


    Tina J. Hall, PhD, is an assistant professor in the physical education department at the University of South Carolina. She taught elementary and middle school physical education for 18 years and conducted several programs similar to those addressed in this book. She has conducted numerous workshops and in-services for physical education teachers, encouraging them to take a leadership role in promoting schoolwide physical activity, and has also conducted workshops and in-services for classroom teachers to help them provide opportunities for physical activity throughout the school day.


    Hall has taught physical education for elementary classroom teachers since 2002 and has taken a lead role in physical activity training for physical educators and classroom teachers in South Carolina. She is a member of NASPE and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD). She was named the Tennessee AHPERD Teacher of the Year in 1995.


    Lori H. Williams, PhD, is an assistant professor at the Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina. She has taught physical education at the elementary, middle school, and college levels and has taught other subject matter at the elementary and middle school levels. Her 25 years of teaching experience includes 14 years in public schools. She served as president of the South Carolina Association for Physical Education and Sport in 2006; during her tenure as president she developed material and initiated workshops for physical activity directors in South Carolina elementary schools.


    All ancillary materials for this text are FREE to course adopters and available online at
    Instructor guide. The instructor guide contains a sample course syllabus for a classroom teacher preparation course and sample course syllabi for a physical education teacher preparation course. Suggested student learning experiences are also provided.
    Test package. Created with Respondus 2.0, the test package includes more than 200 multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, true-and-false, and essay and short-answer questions. With Respondus, instructors can create versions of their own tests by selecting from the question pool, select their own test forms and save them for later editing or printing, and export the tests into a word-processing program.
    Presentation package. The presentation package includes approximately 500 PowerPoint slides that highlight important material from the book.