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Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement-3rd Edition

Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement-3rd Edition


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    Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement, Third Edition, introduces readers to key concepts concerning the anatomical, mechanical, physiological, neural, and psychological bases of human movement. The text provides undergraduate students with a broad foundation for more detailed study of the subdisciplines of human movement and for cross-disciplinary studies. Readers will learn the multi-dimensional changes in movement and movement potential that occur throughout the life span as well as those changes that occur as adaptations to training, practice, and other lifestyle factors.

    This third edition includes the latest research and improved presentation to address areas of growth and change in the fields of human movement. The following are important updates to this edition:

    • A new chapter on historical origins of human movement science provides students with an appreciation of the development of the field as well as its future directions.

    • Content regarding exercise physiology has been reorganized to provide more discrete coverage of key concepts in nutrition.

    • A new concluding section focuses on applications in the areas of prevention and management of chronic disease, prevention and management of injury, and performance enhancement in sport and the workplace, as well as the benefits of sport and exercise science to work, sport, and everyday living.

    • Ancillary materials support instructors in teaching across disciplines as they assist students in understanding the breadth of content in this comprehensive text.

    Using a modular approach to teaching sport and exercise science, Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement, Third Edition, offers students a structured understanding of how the subdisciplines work independently and in tandem. Following a general introduction to the field of human movement studies, readers are introduced to basic concepts, life-span changes, and adaptations arising in response to training in each of the five major biophysical subdisciplines of human movement. Each subdiscipline is given a brief introduction, including the definition and historical development of the subdiscipline, the typical issues and problems it addresses, the levels of analysis it uses, and relevant professional training and organizations. Multi-disciplinary and cross-disciplinary approaches to human movement are also discussed along with contemporary applications. By studying the integration of knowledge from a number of the biophysical subdisciplines, students will be better prepared for advanced study and careers reliant on the integration of knowledge from various disciplines and perspectives.

    The third edition offers tools for retaining the material, including learning objectives and summaries in each chapter, a glossary, and lists of web-based resources. Throughout the text, special “In Focus” features highlight key organizations, individuals, and studies from around the world that have contributed to the current understanding of human movement. These features help readers appreciate the evolution of the field so that they may better understand its direction. Students interested in further study will find specialized texts for each of the subdisciplines listed in the Further Reading and References section of each chapter along with updated lists of websites.

    The third edition of Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement offers a comprehensive introduction for students, scientists, and practitioners involved in the many professions grounded in or related to human movement, kinesiology, and sport and exercise science. By considering the effect of adaptations in each of the biophysical subdisciplines of human movement, Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement also illustrates the important role physical activity plays in the maintenance of health throughout the life span.


    Primary textbook for undergraduate students in kinesiology, human movement, and exercise science courses; reference for academic libraries as well as researchers and practitioners in sport and exercise sciences, in particular exercise physiology, functional anatomy, biomechanics, motor behavior, and sport psychology.

    Table of Contents


    Part I: Introduction to Human Movement Studies
    Chapter 1. Human Movement Studies as a Discipline and a Profession
    What is Human Movement Studies and Why is it Important?
    Disciplines and Professions
    Is Human Movement Studies a Discipline?
    Structure of a Discipline of Human Movement Studies
    What Should the Discipline of Human Movement Studies Be Called?
    Professions Based on Human Movement Studies
    Professional Organisations
    Relationships Between the Discipline and the Professions
    Further Reading and References

    Chapter 2. Historical Origins of the Academic Study of Human Movement
    Scholarly Writings on Human Movement From Ancient Civilisations (ca. 1000 BC-350 AD)
    The Middle Ages as a Period of Suppression of the Study of Human Movement (ca. 350-1350 AD)
    Scholarly Works on Human Movement From the Renaissance and Reformation Periods (ca. 1350-1650 AD)
    Scholarly Works on Human Movement During the Period 1650-1885
    Professionalization of Physical Education During the Period 1885-1929
    Organisation of Research Efforts in Physical Education During the Period 1930-1959
    Beginnings of a Discipline of Human Movement Studies During the Period 1960-1970
    Emergence of Subdisciplines and Specialisations, 1970-Present
    Future Directions, Challenges, and Opportunities
    Further Reading

    Part II: Anatomical Bases of Human Movement: Functional Anatomy
    Chapter 3. Basic Concepts of the Musculoskeletal System
    Tools for Measurement
    Skeletal System
    Articular System
    Muscular System
    Further Reading

    Chapter 4. Basic Concepts of Anthropometry
    Definition of Anthropometry
    Tools for Measurement
    Body Size
    Determination of Body Shape
    Tissues Composing the Body
    Somatotyping as a Description of Body Build
    Human Variation
    Further Reading and References

    Chapter 5. Musculoskeletal Changes Across the Life Span
    Definitions of Auxology and Gerontology
    Tools for Measurement
    Physical Growth, Maturation, and Ageing
    Age-Related Changes in the Skeletal and Articular Systems
    Age-Related Changes in the Muscular System
    Changes in Body Dimensions Across the Life Span
    Methods of Determining Age
    Further Reading

    Chapter 6. Musculoskeletal Adaptations to Training
    Effects of Physical Activity on Bone
    Effects of Physical Activity on Joint Structure and Ranges of Motion
    Effects of Physical Activity on Muscle–Tendon Units
    Effects of Physical Activity on Body Size, Shape, and Composition
    Further Reading and References

    Part III: Mechanical Bases of Human Movement: Biomechanics
    Chapter 7. Basic Concepts of Kinematics and Kinetics
    Generalized Coordinates and Degrees of Freedom
    Moment of Force
    Force Analyses
    Equations of Motion
    Computer Modeling of Movement
    Further Reading

    Chapter 8. Basic Concepts of Energetics
    Kinetic Energy
    Potential Energy
    Total Mechanical Energy

    Elastic Strain Energy
    Metabolic Energy Consumption
    Efficiency of Movement

    Further Reading

    Chapter 9. Biomechanics Across the Life Span
    Biomechanics of Normal Gait
    Changes in Muscle Strength with Age
    Gait Development in Children
    Gait Changes in Older Adults
    Further Reading

    Chapter 10. Biomechanical Adaptations to Training
    Muscular Adaptations to Training
    Neuromuscular Adaptations to Training
    Training to Prevent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
    Biomechanical Adaptations to Injury
    Dependence of Motor Performance on Changes in Muscle Properties
    Using Computer Modelling to Study Vertical Jumping Performance
    Insights Into the Effects of Training Provided by Computer Models
    Further Reading

    Part IV: Physiological Bases of Human Movement: Exercise Physiology
    Chapter 11. Basic Concepts of Exercise Metabolism
    Production of Energy for Exercise
    Oxygen Supply During Sustained Exercise
    VO2max as an Indicator of Endurance-Exercise Capacity
    Measurement of Exercise Capacity
    Human Skeletal Muscle Cells
    Further Reading

    Chapter 12. Basic Concepts of Nutrition and Exercise
    Energy Requirements of Exercise
    Nutrients for Exercise
    Fluid Requirements During Exercise
    Further Reading

    Chapter 13. Physiological Capacity Across the Life Span
    Responses to Exercise in Children
    Exercise in Older Adult Life
    Further Reading and References

    Chapter 14. Physiological Adaptations to Training
    Training-Induced Metabolic Adaptations
    Immediate and Anaerobic-System Changes After High-Intensity Sprint and Strength Training
    Changes in Aerobic Metabolism After Endurance Training
    Endurance Training-Induced Changes in the Cardiorespiratory System
    Endurance Training-Induced Respiratory Changes
    Endurance Training-Induced hanges in Lactate Threshold
    Changes in the Muscular System After Strength Training
    Basic Principles of Training
    Continuous and Interval Training
    Training for Cardiovascular Endurance
    Methods of Strength Training
    Causes of Muscle Soreness
    Further Reading

    Part V: Neural Bases of Human Movement: Motor Control
    Chapter 15. Basic Concepts of Motor Control: Neuroscience Perspectives
    Nervous System as an Elaborate Communications Network
    Components of the Nervous System
    Neurons and Synapses as the Building Blocks of the Nervous System
    Sensory Receptor Systems for Movement
    Effector Systems for Movement
    Motor Control Functions of the Spinal Cord
    Motor Control Functions of the Brain
    Integrative Brain Mechanisms for Movement
    Further Reading

    Chapter 16. Basic Concepts of Motor Control: Cognitive Science Perspectives
    Using Models to Study Motor Control
    Key Properties to be Explained by Models of Motor Control
    Information-Processing Models of Motor Control
    Some Alternative Models of Motor Control
    Further Reading

    Chapter 17. Motor Control Changes Throughout the Life Span
    Changes in Observable Motor Performance
    Changes at the Neurophysiological Level
    Changes in Information-Processing Capabilities
    Further Reading

    Chapter 18. Motor Control Adaptations to Training
    Changes in Observable Motor Performance
    Changes at the Neurophysiological Level
    Changes in Information-Processing Capabilities
    Factors Affecting the Learning of Motor Skills
    Further Reading

    Part VI: Psychological Bases of Human Movement: Sport and Exercise Psychology
    Chapter 19. Basic Concepts in Sport Psychology
    Motivation in Sport
    Self-Determination Theory
    Arousal, Anxiety, and Sport Performance
    The Practice of Applied Sport Psychology
    Imagery: An Example of Psychological Skill
    Further Reading

    Chapter 20. Basic Concepts in Exercise Psychology
    Effects of Psychological Factors on Exercise
    Effects of Exercise on Psychological Factors
    Further Reading

    Chapter 21. Physical Activity and Psychological Factors Across the Life Span
    Changes in Personality
    Psychosocial Development Through Sport Participation
    Exercise in the Aged
    Termination of Athletic Careers
    Further Reading

    Chapter 22. Psychological Adaptations to Training
    Aerobic Fitness and the Response to Psychological Stress
    Changes in Personality
    Changes in Motivation: Staleness, Overtraining, and Burnout
    Changes in Mental Skills
    Further Reading

    Part VII: Multi- and Cross-Disciplinary Applications to Human Movement Science
    Chapter 23. Applications to Health in Chronic-Disease Prevention and Management
    Major Causes of Disease and Death Globally
    Cost of Physical Inactivity
    Measuring Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior
    Levels of Physical Activity in Adults and Children
    Recommendations for Physical Activity
    Further Reading

    Chapter 24. Applications to Health in Injury Prevention and Management
    Preventing Manual-Lifting Injuries in the Workplace
    Preventing and Managing Overuse Injuries in Sport
    Preventing Injuries Related to Osteoporosis
    Further Reading

    Chapter 25. Applications to Performance Enhancement in Sport and the Workplace
    Talent Identification
    Performance Optimization
    Further Reading and References

    About the Authors

    About the Author

    Bruce Abernethy, PhD, is professor of human movement science in the School of Human Movement Studies and deputy executive dean and associate dean (research) in the faculty of health sciences at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. He also holds a visiting professor appointment at the University of Hong Kong, where he was previously the inaugural chair professor and director of the Institute of Human Performance. He is also coeditor of Creative Side of Experimentation.

    Abernethy earned his PhD from the University of Otago. He is an international fellow of the National Academy of Kinesiology (USA), a fellow of Sports Medicine Australia, and a fellow of Exercise and Sports Science Australia.

    Stephanie J. Hanrahan, PhD, is a registered sport psychologist and an associate professor in the Schools of Human Movement Studies and Psychology at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Hanrahan has over 20 years of experience in teaching human movement studies at the undergraduate level. She is a recipient of the University of Queensland's Excellence in Teaching Award. In addition to being part of the author team for the first two editions of Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement, Hanrahan has authored or edited nine other books.

    Hanrahan is a fellow of the Australian Sports Medicine Federation and a fellow of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology, for which she is chair of the organization’s International Relations Division. Hanrahan serves on the national executive committee of the College of Sport and Exercise Psychologists in the Australian Psychological Society.

    Hanrahan earned her doctorate in sport psychology in 1990 from the University of Western Australia. She resides in Moorooka, Queensland, and enjoys traveling, Latin dancing, and kayaking.

    Vaughan Kippers, PhD, is a senior lecturer in the School of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Queensland. He coordinates anatomy courses for students enrolled in medicine, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy programs. His major research involves the use of electromyography, in which the electrical signals produced by muscles as they contract are analyzed to determine muscular control of human movement.

    Kippers is a fellow of the International Association of Medical Science Educators and is on the board of directors of that association. He is also secretary of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Clinical Anatomists.

    Cycling and photography are Kippers’ main interests. He commutes on a bicycle daily and regularly participates in long rides on weekend. He is a former president of Audax Queensland, an international long-distance cycling association.

    Marcus G. Pandy, PhD, is a professor of mechanical and biomedical engineering in the department of mechanical engineering at the University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Pandy earned his PhD in mechanical engineering at Ohio State University in Columbus and then completed a postdoctoral fellowship in mechanical engineering at Stanford University. Before joining the University of Melbourne, he held the Joe J. King professorship in engineering at the University of Texas at Austin.

    Pandy is an associate editor for the Journal of Biomechanics and a fellow of the Institute of Engineers Australia, the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

    Ali McManus, PhD, is an associate professor and assistant director of the Institute of Human Performance at the University of Hong Kong. Her research focuses on the role exercise and free-living physical activity play in the health and well-being of children, the development of population measures of obesity and its associated health risks, and the provision of a more comprehensive understanding of the complex metabolic bases of exercise and physical activity in obese children.

    McManus earned her PhD from the University of Exeter, UK. She lives in Clearwater Bay, Hong Kong, and enjoys going to the gym, horse riding, playing tennis, and spending time with her children, Tash and Bella, and husband, John.

    Laurel T. Mackinnon, PhD, is a science writer and editor based in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. She is also a former associate professor and now adjunct associate professor in the School of Human Movement Studies at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

    Mackinnon conducted research on the immune response to exercise in the 1980s and 1990s and is internationally recognized for her work on overtraining and immune function in athletes. She is the author of 6 books and 12 book chapters, including Exercise and Immunology (Human Kinetics, 1992), the first book to explore the intriguing relationship between exercise and immune response. She has published over 65 peer-reviewed articles in international journals.

    Mackinnon has worked since 2000 as a science writer and editor. She is editing team manager for OnLine English, an Internet-based service that specializes in editing academic, research, and industry communications written by non-native speakers of English wishing to publish in English-language scientific journals.

    Mackinnon is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and a member of the Australasian Medical Writers Association. She is a former board member of the International Society of Exercise and Immunology (ISEI) and the Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science. Mackinnon earned her PhD in exercise science from the University of Michigan.

    She enjoys exercising, reading, and listening to classical and jazz music. Mackinnon resides in Brisbane, Queensland.


    "The book is made up of standalone sections that make reading easy and understandable. The authors are well-respected scientists in the field, and the information they provide throughout originates from evidence-based research."

    --Doody's Book Review (5 Star Review)


    All ancillary materials are FREE to course adopters and available online at

    Instructor guide. Includes a sample course syllabus, learning objectives, and teaching tips and suggestions for class projects.

    Test package. Includes a bank of more than 300 questions. The test package is available as a rich text file through Respondus software that allows instructors to create their own tests by selecting from the question pool. It may also be used through a learning management system such as Blackboard or Moodle.

    Image bank. Includes all of the figures, tables, and photos from the text, sorted by chapter, and can be used in developing a customized presentation based on specific course requirements.

    The image bank is also available for purchase ISBN978-1-4504-4225-1.