Please select your location

UK, Europe and Middle East


Feedback IconFeedback
Competitive Anxiety in Sport (Paper)

Competitive Anxiety in Sport (Paper)


Available As


    Competitive Anxiety in Sport is a comprehensive review of competitive anxiety research that has used the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, or SCAT (a trait scale), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). This book describes the theoretical basis and development procedures for each scale, including detailed information on reliability and validity.

    Competitive Anxiety in Sport outlines directions for future research using SCAT. In addition, the book features the full original report on the development of the CSAI-2 and instructions for using it.

    Competitive Anxiety in Sport concludes with a theory of competitive anxiety based on an interaction between uncertainty about the outcome and the importance assigned to that outcome. The reader is invited to test the theory and challenged to replace it with a better one.

    The actual scales for both SCAT and the CSAI-2 are contained in the text, and readers are encouraged to photocopy these scales for research purposes without further written permission. With these ready-to-use tools, sport psychology researchers, teachers, and students have everything they need to test the authors' theory and arrive at their own conclusions about the causes of competitive anxiety and how to address them.

    This extension of and replacement for Martens's original competitive anxiety monograph published in 1977 also features the following:
    -The test construction procedures with complete results of the reliability and validity of each scale

    -Extensive reviews of 88 studies using SCAT and 16 using the CSAI-2

    -New, more comprehensive norms for SCAT and the CSAI-2

    -A new theory of competitive anxiety that synthesizes the findings and offers direction for future investigation
    Competitive Anxiety in Sport is an essential reference for any research sport psychologist who is investigating competitive anxiety. Clinical sport psychologists will also find this book helpful in understanding the causes of competitive anxiety.


    Reference for sport psychologists and athletes.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. Development and Validation of the Sport Competition Anxiety Test
    Chapter 1. Anxiety in Sport

    -Competitive Anxiety Terminology

    -Competitive Anxiety Model

    -Glossary of Competitive Anxiety Terms

    Chapter 2. Competitive Trait Anxiety

    -The Interactional Paradigm

    -General Anxiety Versus Situation-Specific Anxiety

    -A Trait-State Theory of Anxiety

    -The Competitive Process

    -Applying the Competitive Process Model to Competitive Anxiety Summary
    Chapter 3. Development of SCAT

    -Planning the Inventory

    -Item Selection


    -Internal Consistency


    Chapter 4. Construct Validation of SCAT

    -Construct Validation Model

    -Original Construct Validation Research

    Chapter 5. Using SCAT and SCAT Norms

    -Administration of SCAT

    -Scoring SCAT

    -SCAT Norms
    Part II. Sport Competition Anxiety Test: Literature Review, Current Status, and Future Directions
    Chapter 6. Research Using SCAT: Review and Analysis

    -Additional Psychometric Research

    -An Expanded Model of Competitive Anxiety

    -Relationship Between Competitive A-Trait and Other Intrapersonal Factors

    -Perception of Threat: A Result of Competitive A-Trait and Situational Factors

    -Influence of Perception of Threat on State Responses

    -Competitive A-Trait and Motor Performance

    -Influence of Competitive A-Trait and Performance on Performance Outcomes

    -Influence of Performance Outcomes on Competitive A-Trait Intervention

    -Coaches' Ability to Predict Competitive A-Trait and A-State in Athletes

    Chapter 7. SCAT: Conclusions, Problems, and Future Directions

    -Conclusions Drawn From Research Using SCAT

    -Problems in SCAT Research

    -Future Directions for SCAT Research

    Part III. Development and Validation of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2
    Rainer Martens, Damon Burton, Robin S. Vealey, Linda A. Bump, and Daniel E. Smith
    Chapter 8. A Multidimensional Theory of Competitive State Anxiety

    -Cognitive and Somatic A-State Defined

    -Significance of the Cognitive-Somatic Distinction

    -Independence of Cognitive and Somatic A-State

    Chapter 9. Development of the CSAI-2

    -Development and Analysis of Form A

    -Form B

    -Form C

    -Form D


    -Concurrent Validity

    -Independence of the CSAI-2 Subscales

    -Social Desirability and the Development of Form E

    Chapter 10. Construct Validation of the CSAI-2

    -Study 1: Variables Influencing Competitive A-State

    -Study 2: Changes in Competitive A-State as the Time to Compete Nears

    -Study 3: The Relationship Between Performance and the CSAI-2 Subscales

    -Study 4: The Relationship Between CSAI-2 Subscales and a More Sensitive
    -Intraindividual Performance Measure

    Chapter 11. Using the CSAI-2 and CSAI-2 Norms

    -Administration of the CSAI-2

    -The Inventory

    -Scoring the CSAI-2

    -CSAI-2 Norms
    Part IV. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2: Literature Review, Current Status, and Future Directions
    Chapter 12. Research Using the CSAI-2: Review and Analysis

    -Relationships Between CSAI-2 Components and Other Intrapersonal Factors

    -Interrelationships Between CSAI-2 Components

    -Temporal Changes in CSAI-2 Components

    -Antecedents of CSAI-2 Components

    -Relationship Between CSAI-2 Components and Motor Performance Effect of Intervention on the CSAI-2 Components

    Chapter 13. CSAI-2: Conclusions, Problems, and Future Directions

    -Conclusions Drawn From Research Using the CSAI-2

    -Problems in CSAI-2 Research

    -Future Directions for CSAI-2 Research

    Part V. Concluding With a Theory
    Chapter 14. A Theory of Competitive Anxiety

    -Basic Propositions

    -Causes of Competitive A-State

    -Reciprocal Influence of Uncertainty and Importance

    -Consensual Validation

    -Reduction of Uncertainty

    -Reduction of Importance

    -Questions Regarding Competitive A-Trait

    -Stress Management and the Theory of Competitive Anxiety

    Appendix A. Published Empirical Studies Using SCAT
    Appendix B. Annotated Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations Using SCAT
    Appendix C. Published Empirical Studies Using the CSAI-2 References

    Author Index
    Subject Index

    About the Author

    Rainer Martens, PhD, is the developer of the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT), the first instrument to assess sport-specific anxiety. A sport psychologist for more than 20 years and a professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Illinois, Dr. Martens is widely recognized for his research on competitive anxiety. He lectured on the subject in the Soviet Union as the first American sport psychologist to visit that country. Dr. Martens is the past president of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity and the recipient of the Distinguished Alumnus Award from Emporia State University. He is the author of numerous books on coaching and sport psychology and is president of Human Kinetics Publishers. Away from his professional responsibilities, Dr. Martens enjoys jogging, biking, and handball.

    Robin S. Vealey, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Physical Education, Health, and Sport Studies at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. She earned her PhD in sport psychology at the University of Illinois, where she concentrated her research on competitive anxiety and self-confidence under the direction of Dr. Martens. Dr. Vealey serves on the executive board of the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology and the editorial boards of the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, The Sport Psychologist, and the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. She enjoys a variety of sports and fitness activities, including racquetball, basketball, golf, biking, and swimming. As an accomplished athlete, Dr. Vealey admits to firsthand knowledge of competitive anxiety!

    Like his coauthor Robin Vealey, Damon Burton, PhD, studied for his PhD under the tutelage of Dr. Martens at the University of Illinois. His research activities focused heavily on the development and validation of the CSAI-2, as well as a goal-setting program designed to reduce anxiety among collegiate swimmers. Dr. Burton is an associate professor of sport psychology at the University of Idaho.


    I am not aware of any other such extensive treatment of competitive anxiety from a scientific viewpoint. This alone is sufficient reason to read this book. . . . I would use it not only in my practice, but particularly in the training of graduate students.
    AAASP Newsletter

    This volume constitutes a notable contribution to the scientific literature on anxiety in sport. It is at once a comprehensive test manual for several of the more widely used measures of sport-specific state and trait anxiety, a valuable reference work that reviews several decades of research on sport-related anxiety, and a strong theoretical statement. Sport psychology researchers and consultants will find this book invaluable.
    Ron E. Smith, PhD
    Professor of Psychology, University of Washington