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Exercise Biochemistry-2nd Edition

Exercise Biochemistry-2nd Edition

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    Exercise Biochemistry, Second Edition, takes a potentially difficult and technical subject and translates it into a clear explanation of how exercise affects molecular-level functioning in athletes and nonathletes, both healthy and diseased. Extremely student friendly, this text is written in conversational style by Vassilis Mougios, who poses and then answers questions as if having a dialogue with a student. Using simple language supported by ample analogies and numerous illustrations, he is able to drive home important concepts for students without compromising scientific accuracy and content.

    With significantly updated research, the second edition of Exercise Biochemistry offers a complete compilation, from basic topics to more advanced topics. It includes coverage of metabolism, endocrinology, and assessment all in one volume. This edition also adds the following:
    • A chapter on vitamins and minerals present in the human diet
    • An evidence-based chapter on exercise and disease that shows how appropriate exercise prescriptions can mobilize biochemical mechanisms in the body to fight obesity, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, cancer, osteoporosis, mental disease, and aging
    • Updated information on nucleic acids and gene expression, including exercise genetics, RNA interference, and epigenetics
    • An examination of caffeine as an ergogenic aid to better demonstrate the relationship between caffeine and fatigue
    • Up-to-date findings on how different types of exercise affect lipid metabolism and the use of individual fatty acids during exercise
    To facilitate student learning, Exercise Biochemistry incorporates chapter objectives and summaries, key terms, sidebars, and questions and problems posed at the end of each chapter. It leads students through four successive parts. Part I introduces biochemistry basics, including metabolism, proteins, nucleic acids and gene expression, carbohydrates and lipids, and vitamins and minerals. Part II applies the basics to explore neural control of movement and muscle activity. The essence of the book is found in part III, which details exercise metabolism related to carbohydrates, lipids, and protein; compounds of high phosphoryl-transfer potential; effects of exercise on gene expression; integration of exercise metabolism; and the use of exercise to fight disease. Part IV focuses on biochemical assessment of people who exercise, with chapters on iron status, metabolites, enzymes, and hormones. Simple biochemical assessments of health and performance are also discussed.

    Exercise Biochemistry, Second Edition, is an authoritative resource that will arm future sport and exercise scientists with a clear understanding of the effects of exercise on the function of the human body.

    Audience

    Text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in exercise biochemistry or a supplemental text to exercise physiology courses. Also a reference for exercise physiologists, exercise biochemists, sport nutritionists, and health scientists and biologists with an interest in exercise.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. Biochemistry Basics
    Chapter 1. Introduction
    Chemical Elements
    Chemical Bonds
    Molecules
    Ions
    Radicals
    Polarity Influences Miscibility
    Solutions
    Chemical Reactions
    Chemical Equilibrium
    pH
    Acid-Base Interconversions
    Buffer Systems
    Classes of Biological Substances
    Classes of Nutrients
    Cell Structure
    Chapter 2. Metabolism
    2.1 Free-Energy Changes of Metabolic Reactions
    2.2 Determinants of Free-Energy Change
    2.3 ATP, the Energy Currency of Cells
    2.4 Phases of Metabolism
    2.5 Redox Reactions
    2.6 Overview of Catabolism
    Chapter 3. Proteins
    3.1 Amino Acids
    3.2 The Peptide Bond
    3.3 Primary Structure of Proteins
    3.4 Secondary Structure
    3.5 Tertiary Structure
    3.6 Denaturation
    3.7 Quaternary Structure
    3.8 Protein Function
    3.9 Oxygen Carriers
    3.10 Myoglobin
    3.11 Hemoglobin Structure
    3.12 The Wondrous Properties of Hemoglobin
    3.13 Enzymes
    3.14 The Active Site
    3.15 How Enzymes Speed up Metabolic Reactions
    3.16 Factors Affecting the Rate of Enzyme Reactions
    Chapter 4. Nucleic Acids and Gene Expression
    4.1 Introducing Nucleic Acids
    4.2 Flow of Genetic Information
    4.3 Deoxyribonucleotides, the Building Blocks of DNA
    4.4 Primary Structure of DNA
    4.5 The Double Helix of DNA
    4.6 The Genome of Living Organisms
    4.7 DNA Replication
    4.8 Mutations
    4.9 RNA
    4.10 Transcription
    4.11 Delimiting Transcription
    4.12 Genes and Gene Expression
    4.13 Messenger RNA
    4.14 Translation
    4.15 The Genetic Code
    4.16 Transfer RNA
    4.17 Translation Continued
    4.18 In the Beginning, RNA?
    Chapter 5. Carbohydrates and Lipids
    5.1 Carbohydrates
    5.2 Monosaccharides
    5.3 Oligosaccharides
    5.4 Polysaccharides
    5.5 Carbohydrate Categories in Nutrition
    5.6 Lipids
    5.7 Fatty Acids
    5.8 Triacylglycerols
    5.9 Phospholipids
    5.10 Steroids
    5.11 Cell Membranes
    Chapter 6. Vitamins and Minerals
    6.1 Water Soluble Vitamins
    6.2 Fat Soluble Vitamins
    6.3 Metal Minerals
    6.4 Nonmetal Minerals
    6.5 Elements in the Human Body

    Part II. Biochemistry of the Neural and Muscular Processes of Movement
    Chapter 7. Neural Control of Movement
    7.1 Two Ways of Transmission of Nerve Signals
    7.2 The Resting Potential
    7.3 The Action Potential
    7.4 Propagation of an Action Potential
    7.5 Transmission of a Nerve Impulse from One Neuron to Another
    7.6 Birth of a Nerve Impulse
    7.7 The Neuromuscular Junction
    7.8 Changes in Motor Neuron Activity During Exercise
    7.9 A Lethal Arsenal at the Service of Research
    Chapter 8. Muscle Activity
    8.1 Structure of a Muscle Cell
    8.2 The Sliding-Filament Theory
    8.3 The Wondrous Properties of Myosin
    8.4 Myosin Structure
    8.5 Actin
    8.6 Sarcomere Architecture
    8.7 Mechanism of Force Generation
    8.8 Myosin Isoforms and Muscle Fiber Types
    8.9 Control of Muscle Contraction by Ca2+
    8.10 Excitation-Contraction Coupling

    Part III. Exercise Metabolism
    III.1 Principles of Exercise Metabolism
    III.2 Exercise Parameters
    III.3 Experimental Models Used to Study Exercise Metabolism
    III.4 Five Means of Metabolic Control in Exercise
    III.5 Four Classes of Energy Sources in Exercise
    Chapter 9. Compounds of High Phosphoryl Transfer Potential
    9.1 The ATP-ADP Cycle
    9.2 The ATP-ADP Cycle in Exercise
    9.3 Phosphocreatine
    9.4 Watching Exercise Metabolism
    9.5 Loss of AMP by Deamination
    9.6 Purine Degradation
    Chapter 10. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Exercise
    10.1 Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption
    10.2 Glycogen Content of the Human Body
    10.3 Glycogenesis
    10.4 Glycogenolysis
    10.5 Exercise Speeds Up Glycogenolysis in Muscle
    10.6 The Cyclic-AMP Cascade
    10.7 Recapping the Effect of Exercise on Muscle Glycogen Metabolism
    10.8 Glycolysis
    10.9 Exercise Speeds Up Glycolysis in Muscle
    10.10 Pyruvate Oxidation
    10.11 Exercise Speeds Up Pyruvate Oxidation in Muscle
    10.12 The Citric Acid Cycle
    10.13 Exercise Speeds Up the Citric Acid Cycle in Muscle
    10.14 The Electron Transport Chain
    10.15 Oxidative Phosphorylation
    10.16 Energy Yield of the Electron Transport Chain
    10.17 Energy Yield of Carbohydrate Oxidation
    10.18 Exercise Speeds Up Oxidative Phosphorylation in Muscle
    10.19 Lactate Production in Muscle During Exercise
    10.20 Is Lactate Production a Cause of Fatigue?
    10.21 Is Lactate Production Due to a Lack of Oxygen?
    10.22 Features of the Anaerobic Carbohydrate Catabolism
    10.23 Utilizing Lactate
    10.24 Gluconeogenesis
    10.25 A Shortcut in Gluconeogenesis
    10.26 Exercise Speeds Up Gluconeogenesis in the Liver
    10.27 The Cori Cycle
    10.28 Exercise Speeds Up Glycogenolysis in the Liver
    10.29 Control of the Plasma Glucose Concentration in Exercise
    10.30 Blood Lactate Accumulation
    10.31 Blood Lactate Decline
    10.32 “Thresholds”
    Chapter 11. Lipid Metabolism in Exercise
    11.1 Triacylglycerol Digestion, Absorption, and Distribution
    11.2 Digestion, Absorption, and Distribution of Other Lipids
    11.3 Fat Content of the Human Body
    11.4 Triacylglycerol Synthesis in Adipose Tissue
    11.5 Lipolysis
    11.6 Exercise Speeds Up Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue
    11.7 Exercise Speeds Up Lipolysis in Muscle
    11.8 Fate of the Lipolytic Products During Exercise
    11.9 Fatty Acid Degradation
    11.10 Energy Yield of Fatty Acid Oxidation
    11.11 Degradation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    11.12 Degradation of Odd-Number Fatty Acids
    11.13 Fatty Acid Synthesis
    11.14 Synthesis of Fatty Acids Other Than Palmitate
    11.15 Exercise Speeds Up Fatty Acid Oxidation in Muscle
    11.16 Changes in the Plasma Fatty Acid Concentration and Profile During Exercise
    11.17 Interconversion of Lipids and Carbohydrates
    11.18 Brown Adipose Tissue
    11.19 Plasma Lipoproteins
    11.20 A Lipoprotein Odyssey
    11.21 Effects of Exercise on Plasma Triacylglycerols
    11.22 Effects of Exercise on Plasma Cholesterol
    11.23 Exercise Increases Ketone Body Formation
    Chapter 12. Protein Metabolism in Exercise
    12.1 Processing of Dietary Proteins
    12.2 Protein Content of the Human Body
    12.3 Protein Turnover
    12.4 Effects of Exercise on Protein Turnover
    12.5 Amino Acid Degradation
    12.6 Amino Acid Synthesis
    12.7 Effects of Exercise on Amino Acid Metabolism in Muscle
    12.8 Effects of Exercise on Amino Acid Metabolism in the Liver
    12.9 The Urea Cycle
    12.6 Amino Acid Synthesis
    12.10 Plasma Amino Acid, Ammonia, and Urea Concentrations During Exercise
    12.11 Contribution of Proteins to the Energy Expenditure of Exercise
    12.12 Effects of Training on Protein Turnover
    Chapter 13. Effects of Exercise on Gene Expression
    13.1 Stages in the Control of Gene Expression
    13.2 Stages in the Control of Gene Expression Affected by Exercise
    13.3 Kinetics of a Gene Product After Exercise
    13.4 Exercise-Induced Changes That May Modify Gene Expression
    13.5 Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy
    13.6 Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Increase in Muscle-Mitochondrial Content
    13.7 Exercise and Epigenetics
    Chapter 14. Integration of Exercise Metabolism
    14.1 Interconnections of Metabolic Pathways
    14.2 Energy Systems
    14.3 Energy Sources in Exercise
    14.4 Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
    14.5 Effect of Exercise Intensity on the Choice of Energy Sources
    14.6 Effect of Exercise Duration on the Choice of Energy Sources
    14.7 Interplay of Duration and Intensity: Energy Sources in Running and Swimming
    14.8 Effect of the Exercise Program on the Choice of Energy Sources
    14.9 Sex Differences in the Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
    14.10 How Sex Influences the Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
    14.11 Effect of Age on the Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
    14.12 Effect of Carbohydrate Intake on the Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
    14.13 Effect of Fat Intake on the Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
    14.14 Adaptations of the Proportion of Energy Sources During Exercise to Endurance Training
    14.15 How Endurance Training Modifies the Proportion of Energy Sources During Exercise?
    14.16 Adaptations of Energy Metabolism to Resistance and Sprint Training
    14.17 Adaptations of Exercise Metabolism to Interval Training
    14.18 Effect of the Genome on the Choice of Energy Sources in Exercise
    14.19 Muscle Fiber Type Transitions
    14.20 Effects of Environmental Factors on the Choice of Energy Sources in Exercise
    14.21 The Proportion of Fuels Can Be Measured Bloodlessly
    14.22 Hormonal Effects on Exercise Metabolism
    14.23 Redox State and Exercise Metabolism
    14.24 Causes of Fatigue
    14.25 Recovery of the Energy State After Exercise
    14.26 Metabolic Changes in Detraining
    Chapter 15. Exercise to Fight Disease
    15.1 Health, Disease, and Exercise
    15.2 Exercise to Fight Cardiovascular Disease
    15.3 Adaptations of the Heart to Training
    15.4 Adaptations of the Vasculature to Training
    15.5 Exercise to Fight Cancer
    15.6 Diabetes, a Major Metabolic Upset
    15.7 Exercise to Fight Diabetes
    15.8 Obesity, a Health-Threatening Condition
    15.9 Why Obesity Is Harmful
    15.10 Exercise to Fight Obesity
    15.11 Exercise to Fight Osteoporosis
    15.12 Exercise to Fight Mental Dysfunction
    15.13 The Detriments of Physical Inactivity
    15.14 Exercise for Healthy Aging and Longevity
    15.15 Benefits From Regular Exercise in Other Diseases
    15.16 A Final Word on the Value of Exercise

    Part IV. Biochemical Assessment of Exercising Persons
    IV.1 The Blood
    IV.2 Aims and Scope of the Biochemical Assessment
    IV.3 The Reference Interval
    IV.4 Classes of Biochemical Parameters
    Chapter 16. Iron Status
    16.1 Hemoglobin
    16.2 Hematologic Parameters
    16.3 Does Sports Anemia Exist?
    16.4 Iron
    16.5 Total Iron-Binding Capacity
    16.6 Transferrin Saturation
    16.7 Soluble Transferrin Receptor
    16.8 Ferritin
    16.9 Iron Deficiency
    Chapter 17. Metabolites
    17.1 Lactate
    17.2 Estimating the Anaerobic Lactic Capacity
    17.3 Programming Training
    17.4 Estimating Aerobic Endurance
    17.5 Glucose
    17.6 Triacylglycerols
    17.7 Cholesterol
    17.8 Recapping the Lipidemic Profile
    17.9 Glycerol
    17.10 Urea
    17.11 Ammonia
    17.12 Creatinine
    17.13 Uric acid
    17.14 Glutathione
    Chapter 18. Enzymes and Hormones
    18.1 Enzymes
    18.2 Creatine Kinase
    18.3 Glutamyltransferase
    18.4 Antioxidant Enzymes
    18.5 Steroid Hormones
    18.6 Cortisol
    18.7 Testosterone
    18.8 Overtraining Syndrome
    18.9 Epilogue
    Part IV Summary

    Answers to Problems and Critical Thinking Questions
    Glossary
    Index
    About the Author

    About the Author

    Vassilis Mougios, PhD, is a professor of exercise biochemistry and director of the Laboratory of Evaluation of Human Biological Performance at the University of Thessaloniki in Greece. A teacher of exercise biochemistry, sport nutrition, and ergogenic aspects of sport for 30 years, Mougios served on the Scientific Committee of the 2004 Pre-Olympic Congress. He has coauthored many articles in international scientific journals and has done research on muscle contraction, exercise metabolism, biochemical assessment of athletes, and sport nutrition.

    Mougios is a member of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Physiological Society. He is a fellow and member of the reviewing panel of the European College of Sport Science. He serves as a topic editor for Frontiers in Physiology and a reviewer for Journal of Applied Physiology, British Journal of Sports Medicine, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Acta Physiologica, Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, Metabolism, and Obesity. In his leisure time, he enjoys rafting, hiking, and photography.

    Ancillaries

    All ancillaries are free to course adopters and available online.

    Image bank. Includes more than 300 figures, tables, and chemical equations from the text, sorted by chapter. These can be used in developing a customized presentation based on specific course requirements.

    The image bank is also available for purchase • ISBN 978-1-4925-8738-5