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Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Health PDF

Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Health PDF

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    Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Health is the first text dedicated to the basic concepts of genetics in relation to the broad range of topics in exercise science and health. Author Stephen M. Roth, PhD, makes the content comprehensible for readers who are unfamiliar with genetics without sacrificing the foundational and critical understanding necessary for interpreting research findings and incorporating genetics into research programs.

    Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Healthmaintains a practical focus and addresses common concerns when preparing to study genetics, such as how to use online search tools to identify existing research literature and how to identify and select candidate genes using genome databases. Through this text, readers will discover these concepts:

    ·           The basics of DNA and genetics as they relate to health, physical activity, and sport

    ·           Specific skills and strategies for interpreting and applying genetics findings in research

    ·           How genetics research may affect sport performance training and clinical practice

    ·           The ethical issues raised by genetics in society and sport

    Special focus sections are incorporated throughout the text, providing expanded discussions of interesting topics in each chapter. Students see examples of how the principles described in the book have played out in real-life research, and they receive explicit instructions on planning and interpreting genetics research. Pedagogical aids such as summaries, key terms, and review questions also make this text ideal for efficient learning.

    Part I presents readers with the basic biology and genetics information they need in order to understand and apply the information to exercise science. Part II explores the research and design methods that will help readers interpret and apply their findings. Part IIIaddresses some of the current research findings in the area of genetics in exercise and health and discusses current issues in the field, including the potential for misuse of new genetic technologies and the ethics involved in gene doping.

    Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Healthis the second volume in Human Kinetics’ Primers in Exercise Science series, which provides students and professionals with a nonintimidating basic understanding of the science behind its topic and, where appropriate, how that science is applied. These books are written by leading researchers and teachers in their respective areas of expertise. The authors present in an easy-to-understand manner the essential concepts in dynamic, complex areas of scientific knowledge. The books in the series are ideal for researchers and professionals who need some background in an unfamiliar scientific area. The books also function as accessible basic references for those who will be returning to the material often. This particular book adds a health dimension to the exercise science focus of the series, with discussions on disease- and health-related information.

    Genetic research will play an important role in the future practice of exercise science and health, requiring students and professionals to have this basic knowledge for success in their careers. Through its practical presentation of current and basic topics, Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Health makes the case for more universities to introduce genetics courses to their curricula. Having the essential topics of genetics in a single, practical introductory text will facilitate the work of instructors, students, and professionals.

    Table of Contents

    PartI. Basics of Genetics

     

    Chapter 1. Individual Differences: The Role of Genetics in Exercise Science and Health

    Hidden Aspect of Average Values

    Why Do We See Variation in a Physical Trait?

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Chapter 2. DNA, RNA, and Protein

    Basic Cell Biology

    DNA

    Our Genetic Material as Chromosomes

    Special Focus: The Human Genome Project

    RNA

    Amino Acids and Proteins

    Structure of Genes

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Chapter 3. Transcription, Translation, and the Genetic Code

    Moving From DNA to RNA: Transcription

    Posttranscriptional Modifications of RNA

    Moving From RNA to Protein: Translation

    Posttranslational Modifications of Proteins

    Genetic Code

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Chapter 4. Moving Genetic Material to the Next Generation

    Basic Reproduction

    Sex Cell Production and Meiosis

    Special Focus: Mitosis Versus Meiosis

    Chromosomal Recombination

    Mendelian Inheritance Patterns

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Chapter 5. Heritability and the Basics of Genetic Variation

    Familial Resemblance: Genes and Environment

    Heritability as a Measure of Genetic Contribution

    Special Focus: Twin and Family Studies

    Genetic Variation

    Types of Genetic Variation

    Special Focus: Labeling Polymorphisms

    How Genetic Variation Can Influence Physical Traits

    How Do Polymorphisms Arise? Genetic Variation and Evolution

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Chapter 6. Genetic Variation and Disease

    Mendelian Disease Genetics

    Special Focus: Muscular Dystrophy

    Complex Disease

    Special Focus: Obesity as a Complex Trait

    Gene x Environment Interactions

    Gene x Gene Interactions

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Chapter 7. Linkage Disequilibrium, Haplotype, and Environmental Interaction

    Recombination Revisited

    Linkage Disequilibrium

    Linkage Analysis in Families

    Haplotype: Combinations of Neighboring Alleles

    Special Focus: The International HapMap Project

    Diplotype: Combinations of Haplotypes

    Gene x Environment Interaction Revisited

    An Introduction to Epigenetics

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Part II. Research Design and Methods

     

    Chapter 8. Getting Started: Basic Skills for Genetics Research

    Is Genetic Variation Important for My Trait of Interest?

    Using PubMed

    Interpreting Existing Literature

    Identifying and Selecting Candidate Genes and Polymorphisms

    Using Genome Databases

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Chapter 9. Issues in Study Design and Analysis

    How Genetics Necessarily Alters Study Design

    Typical Study Designs

    Subject Recruitment

    Geographical Ancestry

    Special Focus: Race in Genetics

    Prospective Versus Retrospective

    Statistical Approaches

    Interpretation of Results: Association versus Cause and Effect

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Chapter 10. Basic Laboratory Methods in Genetics

    DNA from Blood or Cheek Cells

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    Genotyping with Restriction Enzymes

    Genotyping with Fluorescent Tags

    Special Focus: DNA Microarrays

    DNA Sequencing

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Part III. Current Findings and Extensions of Genetics Research

     

    Chapter 11. Current Research Findings in the Genetics of Exercise Science and Health

    Overview of Current Findings

    Special Focus: The Human Gene Map for Performance and Health-Related Fitness Phenotypes

    ACTN3 and Muscular Performance

    ApoE and Cognitive Impairment

    ACE and Sport Performance

    Myostatin and Muscle Mass

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Chapter 12. Personalized Medicine

    Genetics and Complex Disease Revisited

    Promise and Limitations of Personalized Medicine

    Special Focus: Pharmacogenomics

    Genetics in Nutrition and Exercise Prescription

    Genetics in Disease Prevention

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Chapter 13. Ethical Challenges in Genetics and Society

    Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Genomics Gene Therapy for Disease Treatment

    Special Focus: Stem Cells

    Genetics in Sport: Genetic Testing and Gene Doping for Performance

    Summary

    Learning Aids

     

    Appendix A: Answers to Review Questions

    Appendix B: Evolution and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

    Glossary

    Bibliography

    Index

    About the Author

    About the Author

    Stephen M. Roth, PhD, is an assistant professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Maryland, where he teaches courses in genetics and exercise science and health. He has extensive training in both exercise science and human genetics, and he directs the Functional Genomics Laboratory, where he maintains a research program dedicated to understanding the role of genetics in the contexts of aging, health, and exercise.

    Dr. Roth has more than 45 peer-reviewed publications in scholarly journals, many of which are in the areas of genetics, health, and exercise. In 2005, the AmericanCollege of Sports Medicine presented him with a New Investigator Award recognizing his work in genetics and exercise physiology. He also has an award from the National Institutes of Health to further his training in genetic epidemiology, extending his existing training in exercise physiology and human genetics.

    Dr. Roth is a member of the AmericanCollege of Sports Medicine, the American Physiological Society, and the American Society of Human Genetics. He is an assistant editor for Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews.

    Reviews

    “The overall content of the book is certainly thought-provoking.”

     --The Journal of Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism