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Integrated Risk Management for Leisure Services

Integrated Risk Management for Leisure Services


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    Integrated Risk Management for Leisure Services provides both students and professionals with a systematic approach to safety. By integrating risk management, accident prevention, and emergency response with information on legal liability, Integrated Risk Management for Leisure Services enables leisure service providers to implement strategies to reduce or eliminate bodily injury, property damage, and financial loss.

    Integrated Risk Management for Leisure Services uses a four-phase integrated risk management model. The first three phases focus on negligence, the accident process, and risk management plans to reduce or eliminate injury, damage, or loss. The fourth phase focuses on what to do after an incident occurs to reduce the impact of injury, damage, or loss.

    Integrated Risk Management for Leisure Services features several unique aspects for students and professionals in the recreation and park field. It covers safety prevention and accident processes in the recreation and parks field. Then it addresses how to manage the post-incident situation to reduce impacts. Last, the text integrates these two new areas with the traditional areas of legal liability and risk management planning in an effort to provide safer recreation and park programs.


    Textbook for undergraduate legal liability and risk management courses. Reference for professors in recreation and leisure studies and professionals in recreation, parks, and leisure.

    Table of Contents


    Part I: Principles of Negligence

    Chapter 1. Negligence
    General Legal Principles
    Four Windows of Negligence
    Professional Conduct

    Chapter 2. Standard of Care
    Visitor Categories
    Recreation Land Use Statutes
    Attractive Nuisance

    Chapter 3. Defenses Against Negligence
    Legal Doctrines That Limit Liability
    Transfer Strategies
    Reduction Strategies

    Part II: The Accident Process and Safety Management

    Chapter 4. Accident Causation and Safety Management
    Historical Overview of Safety Management
    Behavioral Models
    Epidemiological Models
    Human Error Management
    Human Error Model
    Highly Reliable Organizations
    A Cautionary Note

    Chapter 5. Analytical Trees
    Event and Causal Factor Analysis
    Barrier Analysis
    Tree Analysis
    The Four Ts: Terminate, Treat, Transfer, and Tolerate

    Chapter 6. Metaphorical and Outdoor Adventure Models
    What Are Metaphorical Models?
    Early Metaphorical Models
    Examining Underlying Factors in Accidents and Accident Models
    Metaphorical Accident Models
    Negligence and Program Planning Implications

    Chapter 7. Programming for Risks
    2x2 Risk Matrix: Perceived Versus Actual Risks
    Adventure Experience Paradigm
    Programming Implications
    Integrating Underlying Factors and Accident Process
    Legal Implications

    Part III: Risk Management

    Chapter 8. Risk Management Plans
    Winding River Canoe Rentals Case Study
    Risk Management Process
    Structure of the Risk Management Plan
    Risk Management Process Applied to Winding River Canoe Rentals

    Part IV: The Postincident Response

    Chapter 9. Emergency Action Plans
    Components of an EAP
    Writing EAP Statements
    Legal Review
    Alternative EAP Format

    Chapter 10. Managing the Incident
    Search Phase
    Rescue Phase
    Medical Phase
    Evacuation Phase
    Management Function

    Chapter 11. Crisis Management
    The Need for Good Crisis Management
    General Rules and Principles for the PIO
    Managing the Crisis

    Chapter 12. Supporting the Victim and the Family
    Importance of Providing Support to Victims and Their Families
    Dealing With the Anger of the Victim and the Victim’s Family
    Emergency Action Plan

    Chapter 13. The Ripple Effect
    Impact of the Ripple Effect
    Symptoms of Stress and the Ripple Effect
    Critical Incident Stress Management

    Chapter 14. Conducting an Investigation
    Need for Investigation
    Internal or External Study
    Selecting an Investigator
    Investigation Model
    Legal Implications

    Appendix A. High Achievers' Climb to Death
    Appendix B. Decide to Return: A Strategy for Safe Sea Kayaking
    Appendix C. Cold, Wet, and Alive
    About the Authors

    About the Author

    Robert B. Kauffman, PhD, is a professor and chair of the department of recreation and parks management at Frostburg State University in Frostburg, Maryland.

    Kauffman has more than 30 years of experience in the safety field, in particular boating safety. He has worked to bring content areas of the safety field into the mainstream of the recreation and parks field. He has produced award-winning videos and boating safety materials, including Cold, Wet, and Alive (the most widely used boating safety video among boating law educators in the United States), Decide to Return, and Almost a Perfect Day. Kauffman has also served as an expert witness and has used several of those cases as case studies in this book.

    In 2010, Kauffman received the Outstanding Faculty Award for Professional Achievement from Frostburg State University. He received the same award for service in 1999. In 2005, he received the Citation Award from the Maryland Recreation and Parks Association for lifetime achievement, the organization’s highest honor. He also received a Telly Award (2009) and three Golden Eagle Awards (2012, 1994, and 1989) from the Council for International Non-theatrical Events (CINE) for his work on the production of boating safety videos.

    Kauffman and his wife, Sally, reside in Frostburg, Maryland. In his free time, he enjoys canoeing, rafting, biking, and photography.

    Merry L. Moiseichik, ReD, JD, is a professor of recreation and sport management in the department of health, human performance and recreation at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. In developing and teaching the risk management course for the program at the University of Arkansas, Moiseichik gained an understanding of the challenges students have in comprehending risk management. This understanding along with her knowledge of law provided important insight into the writing of Integrated Risk Management for Leisure Services.

    Moiseichik also works with communities to evaluate risk within all areas of their recreation departments and has served as a consultant to commercial recreation agencies in evaluating risk for insurance company reporting. She is also a National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) certified playground safety inspector.

    A frequent presenter at state, national, and international conferences, Moiseichik has published over 15 journal articles, edited 3 books, and authored 7 book chapters. Moiseichik also serves as a reviewer for the Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport.

    In 2006, Moiseichik received an Honor Award from the Sport and Recreation Law Association and a Research Award from the University of Arkansas College of Education and Health Professions. She is a past president and a current member of the Sport and Recreation Law Association.

    Moiseichik resides in Fayetteville. In her free time she enjoys camping, canoeing, biking, and playing board games.


    All ancillary materials for this text are FREE to course adopters and available online at

    Instructor guide. Includes chapter overviews, learning objectives, chapter exercises with answers, critical thinking questions, and a glossary.

    Test package. Features multiple-choice, true-and-false, and short-answer and essay questions.

    Presentation package. Includes a comprehensive series of PowerPoint slides for each chapter of the book.

    Image bank. Includes most of the figures, content photos, and tables from the text, sorted by chapter. Images can be used to develop a customized presentation based on specific course requirements.