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Norms for Fitness, Performance, and Health

Norms for Fitness, Performance, and Health


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    Norms for Fitness, Performance, and Health contains a comprehensive collection of normative data for numerous fitness, performance, and health components across a range of ages, abilities, occupations, and athletic backgrounds. It lays the foundation for working with normative data by detailing the purpose and benefits of norms. It reviews relevant statistical information to assist the reader in understanding and interpreting descriptive statistics, including a limited discussion on inferential statistics.

    Norms for Fitness, Performance, and Health presents data for numerous fitness components, including strength, endurance, anaerobic and aerobic capacity and power, body composition, flexibility, speed, and agility, as well as data for various health norms such as cardiovascular capacity, blood lipids, bone density, energy expenditure, and caloric values. Professionals will be able to use the information to provide a basis of comparison to others in the same category as their clients. The data also highlight various athletic populations, including athletes in football, basketball, and baseball, and features normative data that were collected from professional sport organizations, including the NFL and NHL. Coaches will use these norms to gain a greater understanding of maximizing their athletes' performance and develop optimal training programs. A unique aspect of the book is the inclusion of performance data for specific civil service populations such as police, firefighters, and military personnel.

    Readers will benefit from this book by gaining knowledge on
    -comparing athletic populations and rating athletes based on normative values;

    -properly conducting and comparing various tests for specific fitness components through detailed test descriptions;

    -the importance of testing and the reasons for establishing testing programs;

    -the interpretation of normative data to allow proper understanding of test results; and

    -comprehending data analysis through the easy manner in which the statistics are presented.
    The book is organized into three parts, with chapters fortified with figures and tables to make it easier to use and understand. Part I discusses the importance of fitness and health assessment, outlines the development of testing protocols, and provides a basic understanding of statistical interpretation of data. Part II provides normative data for various athletic performance and fitness components. These chapters focus on the variety of tests available for each component and provide normative data for various age groups, professions, and sports in both laboratory and field tests. Gender differences are also addressed when applicable. Part III offers normative data for various health issues, including cardiovascular profiles (blood pressure, heart rates), lipid profiles (cholesterol, triglycerides), hematological profiles (hemoglobin, iron), energy expenditures, and caloric values. An appendix is also available that outlines testing methods for 24 different tests and activities.

    Norms for Fitness, Performance, and Health is a solid reference for fitness instructors, physical educators, exercise scientists, coaches, and various civil service professionals. It is the most comprehensive compilation of normative fitness and health data in existence and provides a basic understanding of statistical analysis of those norms.


    Reference for health and fitness professionals and performance consultants, including exercise physiologists, physical educators, kinesiologists, and sports medicine specialists. Also a supplemental text for students in fitness assessment and evaluation, testing and measurement, and related courses.

    Table of Contents

    Part I: Overview
    Chapter 1. Fitness and Health Assessment

    -Factors Affecting Fitness Assessment

    -Validity and Reliability of Testing

    -Test Administration

    Chapter 2. Interpretation of Normative Data

    -Data Classification


    -Hypothesis Testing

    -Descriptive Statistics


    -Inferential Statistics

    Part II: Fitness and Performance Norms
    Chapter 3. Muscular Strength

    -Strength Testing

    Chapter 4. Muscular Endurance

    -Musclar Endurance Tests

    -Musclar Endurance Tests for Civil Service and Military Personnel

    -Musclar Endurance Tests for Athletes

    Chapter 5. Anaerobic Power

    -Laboratory Measures of Anaerobic Power

    -Field Tests for Anaerobic Power

    Chapter 6. Aerobic Power and Endurance

    -Aerobic Power Assessment

    -Normative Values for Aerobic Power and Endurance

    Chapter 7. Anthropometry and Body Composition


    -Body Composition

    Chapter 8. Flexibility

    -Flexibility Assessment

    -Flexibility Measures in Athletic Populations

    Chapter 9. Speed and Agility



    Part III: Health Norms
    Chapter 10. Cardiovascular Profiles

    -Blood Pressure

    -Maximal Heart Rate

    -Training Effects

    Chapter 11. Lipid Profile

    Chapter 12. Bone Density

    -Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content of Children and Adolescents

    -Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Adults

    -Race and Ethnic Comparisons

    -Effect of Athletic Participation on Bone Mineral Density

    Chapter 13. Hematological Profile

    Chapter 14. Energy Expenditure

    -Metabolic Equations

    -MET Values for Energy Costs

    Chapter 15. Caloric Values

    -Caloric Consumption


    About the Author

    Jay Hoffman, PhD, is a professor and the chair of the department of health and exercise science at the College of New Jersey. Long recognized as an expert in the field of exercise physiology, Hoffman has more than 75 publications to his credit on human performance in refereed journals, book chapters, and books. He also has more than 17 years of experience coaching at the collegiate and professional levels. This combination of the practical and the theoretical provides him with a unique perspective to write for both coaches and academic faculty.

    Hoffman was voted to the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) Board of Directors, for which he serves as vice president, and was awarded the 2005 Outstanding Kinesiological Professional Award by the Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut. He also was awarded the 2000 Outstanding Junior Investigator Award by the NSCA. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine. He is also the author of Physiological Aspects of Sport Training and Performance (Human Kinetics, 2002).