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    Ebook

    Outdoor recreation programming is a growing and diverse field that requires administrators to be ready to work in complex and multidisciplinary environments. Outdoor Program Administration: Principles and Practices will help both seasoned and new administrators—as well as students and emerging professionals—flourish in various settings, including university, military, government, commercial, and nonprofit organizations.

    You’ll learn the best contemporary administrative strategies and practices from veteran professionals from the Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education (AORE). The AORE authors provide extensive coverage of all aspects of administrative duties and responsibilities from a diverse organizational setting.

    Outdoor Program Administration: Principles and Practices guides you in developing and sustaining programs in outdoor recreation settings across public, private, and nonprofit sectors. You will reap the benefits of the experience shared by the AORE authors, who also provide questions and critical thinking exercises that will enhance the materials and deepen your understanding.

    This reference explores all the issues pertinent to being a successful outdoor program administrator. The book has four sections: Outdoor Program Foundations, Program Design and Implementation, Staffing Considerations, and Facilities and Programs. Topics you’ll delve into include

    • designing and developing programs;

    • risk management and legal considerations;

    • budgeting and financial operations;

    • marketing and land access (permits);

    • environmental stewardship;

    • staff recruitment, supervision, training, and assessment; and

    • management of indoor climbing walls and challenge courses.

    Outdoor Program Administration: Principles and Practices presents material that will help you improve your administrative skills and enhance the programs you oversee. As such, it’s an essential book for your professional library.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. Outdoor Program Foundations

    Chapter 1. The Outdoor Program Administrator

    Mat Erpelding and Geoff Harrison

    Outdoor Program Administration Defined

    Outdoor Program Administrator Defined

    Skill Sets for Outdoor Program Administrators

    Administrative Competence

    Minimum Competencies for Outdoor Program Administrators

    Acquiring Skills

    Professional Maintenance

    Administrative Challenges

    Summary

    Chapter 2. History of Outdoor Recreation in the United States: An Outdoor Administrator’s Perspective

    Steven P. Guthrie, Bryan J. Cavins, and Jerome Gabriel

    National Events Set the Stage for Emergence of Outdoor Recreation: 1825–1890

    The Beginnings of a Profession: 1890–1920s

    Outdoor Recreation Evolves and Grows: 1920s–1960s

    Adventure Programming Emerges: 1960s–1990

    Adventure Programming Today (1990–present)

    Summary

    Chapter 3. Dimensions of Outdoor Recreation Programs

    Todd Bauch and Steve Hutton

    Three Service Sectors of Outdoor Recreation Programs

    Common Programmatic Types

    Common Facilities or Resources of Outdoor Programs

    Outdoor Program Administrative Structures and Models

    Summary

    Chapter 4. The Future of Outdoor Program Administration

    Laurlyn K. Harmon and Susan L. Johnson

    Evolving Participant Characteristics

    Staffing

    Professionalization of the Field: Standards, Certifications, Accreditation

    Youth and the Outdoors

    Technology and the Outdoors

    Sustainability

    Collaborations and Partnerships

    Outcome Assessment

    Summary

    Part II. Program Design and Implementation

    Chapter 5. Designing and Developing Outdoor Recreation and Education Programs

    Todd Miner and Heidi Erpelding-Welch

    Vision

    Mission Statement

    Strategic Plan

    Sustainability

    Dealing With Change: Evolve to Survive and Thrive

    Summary

    Chapter 6. Administrative Risk Management

    Mat Erpelding and Geoff Harrison

    Terms and Definitions of Risk Management

    Creating a Comprehensive Risk-Management Plan

    Summary

    Chapter 7. Legal Considerations in Outdoor Recreation

    Brent Wilson and Tracey Knutson

    Negligence

    Legal Definition (Elements) of Negligence

    Negligence and Negligence Related Theories of Liability

    Defenses Against Negligence

    Role of Insurance in Legal Liability Matters

    Summary

    Chapter 8. Budgeting and Financial Operations of Outdoor Programs

    Tim J. Moore and Geoff Harrison

    Budget Components

    Budget-Development Strategies

    Forecasting Expenses and Revenue

    Summary

    Chapter 9. Marketing Outdoor Programs

    John McIntosh and Geoff Harrison

    Marketing Basics

    Identifying the Market

    Marketing Mix

    Developing a Marketing Plan

    Branding

    Marketing Methods

    Summary

    Chapter 10. Access and Permitting for Use of Public Lands

    Rachel M. Peters

    Outdoor Programs on Public Lands

    Permitting Defined

    Management Agencies and Regulations

    Permitting Tips

    Summary

    Chapter 11. Environmental Stewardship

    Whitney Ward and Will Hobbs

    History of Environmental Stewardship in the United States

    Major Impacts of Recreation Today

    Applied Environmental Stewardship

    Integration of Environmental Stewardship and Recreation

    Summary

    Chapter 12. Developing Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines for Outdoor Programs

    Mat Erpelding, Curt Howell, and Brien Sheedy

    Characteristics of Quality Policy, Procedure, and Guideline Documents

    Considerations Specific to Developing Policies and Procedures

    Developing Administrative Policies and Procedures

    Developing Field Policies and Procedures

    Summary

    Part III. Staffing Considerations

    Chapter 13. Staff Recruitment and Supervision

    Jeff Turner and Leigh Jackson-Magennis

    Human Resource Planning

    Staff Selection

    Staff Supervision

    Summary

    Chapter 14. Staff Training

    Bruce Saxman and Tom Stuessy

    Needs Assessment

    Hiring and Staff Training

    Initial Standardized Training

    Mentoring

    Staff-Training Assessment

    Mechanisms for Training Assessment and Evaluation of Staff

    Staff-Training Designs: Integrated Training Model

    Activity-Specific Training

    Staff Appraisal

    Summary

    Chapter 15. Staff Assessment

    Mark Wagstaff and Jenny Kafsky

    The Basics and Purpose of Staff Assessment

    An Effective Environment for Assessment

    Assessment Criteria

    Assessment Tools

    An Effective Assessment System

    Summary

    Part IV. Facilities and Programs

    Chapter 16. Rental Operations

    Rob Jones

    Planning

    Purchasing

    Rental Center Operations

    Summary

    Chapter 17. Indoor Climbing Walls

    John Bicknell and Guy deBrun

    History of Artificial Climbing Walls

    Climbing Wall Facilities and Construction

    Climbing Wall Activities

    Climbing Wall Management

    Summary

    Chapter 18. Challenge Course Management

    Christina Carter Thompson and Adam Bondeson

    Challenge Terms

    History

    Challenge Course Program Design and Outcomes

    Primary Influences on Challenge Programming

    Challenge Course Facilities

    Designing and Choosing a Course

    Bidding Process

    Building Process

    The Challenge Course Administrator

    Organizational Support and Resources

    Summary

    Chapter 19. Land-Based Programming

    Curt Howell

    Incident Prevention and Incident Response

    Cost Analyses

    Determining Learning Outcomes

    Risk Management

    Backpacking

    Climbing

    Caving Programs

    Mountaineering

    Ski Programs

    Cycling

    Summary

    Chapter 20. Water-Based Programming

    Andy Reimers and Chris Stec

    Incident Prevention and Incident Response: Needs Assessment

    Water-Based Programming: Flat Water

    Water-Based Programming: Moving Water and Whitewater Venues

    Water-Based Programming: Open Water

    Summary

    Chapter 21. Special Events Programming

    Brent Anslinger and Amy Anslinger

    Special Event Options

    Risk Management for Special Events and Competitions

    Assessing and Planning Your Event

    Staffing

    Managing the Event

    Developing Timelines for Successful Events

    Putting the Planning Into Motion

    Summary

    About the Author & Editor

    The Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education (AORE) provides opportunities for professionals and students in the field of outdoor recreation and education. AORE’s mission is to exchange information; promote the preservation and conservation of the natural environment; and address issues common to college, university, community, military, and other not-for-profit outdoor recreation and education programs.

    Geoff Harrison, MS, has been working in the field of health and recreation for over 20 years and has been fostering student and staff development at Boise State University since 1998. Geoff serves as the associate director of education and recreation at Boise State University, where he oversees multiple programs and service areas, department partnerships, and initiatives. He also serves as an adjunct faculty for the department of kinesiology. Prior to his work at Boise State, Geoff worked in the fields of publishing, event promotion, and domestic and international adventure travel.

    Geoff has served the Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education as a committee chair, board member, conference host, and interim national director. In 2010, Geoff was the recipient of the Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education’s Jim Rennie Leadership Award.

    Mat Erpelding, MA, has been working in the field of physical education and outdoor leadership for over 15 years. Currently, he teaches at the College of Western Idaho in the physical education department and at Boise State University in the leadership studies minor. Additionally, Mat guides mountain climbers and teaches courses for the American Alpine Institute and teaches wilderness medicine courses for the Wilderness Medicine Training Center. Before making the transition to outdoor education, Mat worked as a developmental therapist and in the mental health industry.

    Mat is a past president of the Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education and served on committees and the board of directors and as a conference host. In 2006, Mat was the recipient of the Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education’s Jim Rennie Leadership Award, and in 2010 he received the Instructor of the Year Award from the Wilderness Education Association.

    Mat and Geoff co-own Experiential Adventures LLC. They provide training and consulting services to organizations that foster leadership development, help organizations manage change, develop positive organizational cultures that promote success, and build professionalism in outdoor programs through trainings and certifications.