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Promoting Health and Academic Success

Promoting Health and Academic Success


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    There is increasing evidence that health and academic success go hand in hand. Now educators and health professionals have a new model—the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) approach—to use in promoting health and learning in the schools. This new approach, developed by leaders in education and health, is a transition from the coordinated school health (CSH) model that was introduced in 1987.

    Promoting Health and Academic Success is a new resource for the transition from CSH to WSCC. The book is written by national leaders in education and school health, including Lloyd Kolbe, Diane Allensworth, Sean Slade, “Skip” Valois, Jeremy Lyon, Sharon Murray, Linda Morse and more. Some of the many contributors were involved in the development of WSCC and this book provides direction for education and school health professionals interested in promoting student health. It is valuable for individuals and groups interested in advocating for WSCC and for those engaged in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of this new approach.

    The book also is a resource for both undergraduate and graduate students in courses that address a coordinated approach to school health. Each chapter includes application activities that engage students in translating their learning in the context of WSCC simulations. In addition, the School Health in Action feature provides case studies that demonstrate the impact school health programs are having in schools across the United States.

    Applicable to both students and professionals, Promoting Health and Academic Success includes an appendix that presents a thorough guide to using school health assessment tools created by organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, and the National Association of State Boards of Education. Following is a partial listing of the tools:
    • The School Health Index helps schools improve health and safety policies.
    • The State Schools Health Policy Database facilitates sharing of policies across states.
    • The Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool encourages children to adopt and maintain health-enhancing behaviors.
    • The Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool assists schools in analyzing their curricula and comparing it to national physical education standards.
    • A Parent Engagement tool shares strategies for involving parents in school health.
    The book is presented in five parts. Part I unveils the new WSCC model, explains its components, and provides a historical overview of coordinated school health. Part II offers insights into the Whole Child initiative and examines the evidence linking health and academic success. Part III explores the crucial role of school administration in ensuring success, ways to meet the diverse needs of students and their families, and methods for getting the community involved. Part IV delves into planning, implementation, and evaluation aspects of WSCC. Part V looks to the future for WSCC and provides perspectives from the field. The appendix supplies the assessment instruments and tools.


    Education and health professionals interested in advocacy, planning, implementation, and evaluation of school health programs. Faculty in professional preparation programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels who teach courses that address WSCC.

    Table of Contents

    Foreword by Lloyd Kolbe

    Part I: Moving From Coordinated School Health to the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Approach

    Chapter 1 Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child: A New Model for Health and Academic Success
    David A. Birch and Donna M. Videto
    Evolution of School Health Models
    Creation of WSCC
    Learning Aids
    Chapter 2 Historical Overview of Coordinated School Health
    Diane DeMuth Allensworth
    First Stage of Health Promotion: Addressing Infectious Diseases
    Second Stage of Health Promotion: Addressing Individual Behaviors
    Third Stage of Health Promotion: Addressing the Social Determinants of Health
    Barriers to Universal Adoption of CSH
    Next Evolution for School Health
    Learning Aids
    Chapter 3 Components of the WSCC Model
    David A. Birch, Qshequilla Mitchell, and Hannah M. Priest
    Health Education
    Parent and Family Engagement
    Physical Environment
    Social and Emotional Climate
    Physical Education and Physical Activity
    Counseling, Psychological, and Social Services
    Health Services
    Nutrition Environment and Services
    Employee Wellness
    Learning Aids

    Part II: Putting the Focus on the Child

    Chapter 4 The Whole Child Initiative
    Sean Slade
    Whole Child Tenets
    Links Between Health and Education
    “Healthy” as a Key Tenet of the Whole Child Initiative
    Gaining Support for the Whole Child Initiative
    Nine Levers for Cultural Change
    Relevance for Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child
    Learning Aids
    Chapter 5 Linking Health and Academic Success
    Michele Wallen
    Health and Education in Early Childhood
    Health-Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement
    Making a Difference Through the WSCC Approach
    Learning Aids

    Part III: Building Partnerships and Support

    Chapter 6 Role of School Administration
    Jeremy Lyon
    Need for School Health Promotion
    School Administrators as Advocates for WSCC
    Embracing the Leadership Role in WSCC
    Promoting Change
    Schools as Centers for Employee Wellness
    Identifying Health Champions
    Identifying a Leader
    Moving Forward
    Learning Aids
    Chapter 7 Meeting the Needs of Diverse Students, Families, and Communities
    Angelia M. Paschal
    Diverse Students and School Connectedness
    Diverse Family Involvement
    Diverse Community Engagement
    Cultural Competence Strategies
    Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Approach
    Learning Aids
    Chapter 8 Community Involvement
    Bonni C. Hodges and Lisa Angermeier
    Need for School–Community Collaborations
    Stages of Collaboration
    Barriers to Collaboration
    Characteristics of Effective School–Community Collaborations
    Learning Aids

    Part IV: Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Chapter 9 Planning for WSCC
    Bonni C. Hodges and Donna M. Videto
    Need for Systematic Planning
    Creating a Comprehensive Profile
    Actions for Collecting Profile Data
    Implications for WSCC
    Learning Aids
    Chapter 10 Implementing WSCC
    Donna M. Videto and David A. Birch
    1. Secure and Maintain Administrative Support and Commitment
    2. Establish a District Health Council and School Teams
    3. Identify a School Health Coordinator
    4. Set Goals and Objectives and Then Develop a Plan
    5. Implement the Plan and Strategies
    ASCD and CDC Combined Strategies 5, 6, and 7
    Learning Aids
    Chapter 11 Evaluating WSCC
    Robert Valois
    Rationale for Program Evaluation
    Planning for Program Evaluation
    Developing an Evaluation Plan: CDC’s Framework for Program Evaluation
    Internal or External Program Evaluation
    Types of Evaluation
    Quantitative and Qualitative Data Collection
    Learning Aids

    Part V: The Path Forward

    Chapter 12 Building on the Past and Moving Into the Future
    Sean Slade
    CSH Success
    Focus on Standardized Testing
    Beyond Cooperation: Alignment and Integration
    Healthy Learning Environment
    Responding to Trends in Education
    ASCD and CDC
    What’s in It for Education?
    What’s in It for Health?
    Chapter 13 Perspectives From the Field
    Sharon Murray
    Karen Cottrell
    Richard A. Lyons
    Barb McDowell
    Vanessa Booth
    Rochelle Davis
    Beth H. Chaney
    Linda Morse
    Denise M. Seabert
    Deborah A. Fortune
    Jill Deuink Pace
    Laurence Spring
    Caroline Eberle
    Sharon Murray

    Appendix: Assessment Instruments and Tools
    Lisa C. Barrios and Sarah M. Lee
    Assessing the Overall School Health Program
    Assessing Overall Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices
    Assessing School Health Policy
    Assessing Health Education
    Assessing Physical Education
    Assessing School Environmental Safety
    Assessing Nutrition Services
    Assessing Health Services
    Assessing School Employee Wellness
    Assessing Family and Community Involvement

    About the Contributors
    About the Editors

    About the Author

    David A. Birch, PhD, MCHES, is professor and chair of the department of health science at the University of Alabama. He is president-elect of the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) and is past president of the American Association for Health Education (AAHE). He has served on the board of directors of AAHE, the American School Health Association (ASHA), and the National Association of Health Education Centers (NAHEC) and on the board of trustees of the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE). Dr. Birch is cochair of the National Implementation Task Force for Accreditation in Health Education, a member of the Governing Council of the American Public Health Association, and a member of the board of directors of the Foundation for the Advancement for Health Education. He is chair of the editorial board of the Journal of School Health and a member of the editorial boards of Pedagogy in Health Promotion: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning and the American Journal of Health Studies. Dr. Birch is a charter fellow of AAHE and a fellow of ASHA. He has received the Eta Sigma Gamma Honor Award (2015), the SOPHE Presidential Citation (2012), the ASHA Outstanding Researcher Award (2010), AAHE Professional Service Award (2008), the AAHE Presidential Citation (2008, 2012, and 2013), and the ASHA Distinguished Service Award (1996). He was the 2008 Ann E. Nolte Scholar in Health Education at Illinois State University and a 2000 Robert D. Russell Scholar at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. As a faculty member at Indiana University, Dr. Birch received the Trustee’s Teaching Award and the Teaching Excellence Recognition Award. His research interests include professional preparation, professional leadership, and the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child model.

    Donna M. Videto, PhD, MCHES, is a professor of health at SUNY College at Cortland. She is a national leader in school health and has published articles on health education in several journals, written chapters in four books, and coauthored a book on assessment in health education. She has also made numerous presentations across the United States on health education and was given the 2012 New York AHPERD Amazing People Award for outstanding contributions and commitment to professional excellence. She became an American Association for Health Education fellow in 2012, and she has received several awards for her teaching. Videto is a member of the American School Health Association and the Society for Public Health Education.