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Research Methods in Physical Activity-7th Edition

Research Methods in Physical Activity-7th Edition

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    Book

    Research Methods in Physical Activity, Seventh Edition, systematically guides students through the research process, introducing methods and tools specifically for kinesiology and exercise science disciplines, including the subdisciplines of physical therapy, rehabilitation, and occupational therapy. The seventh edition leads students and novice researchers to research competency with the distinctive humor that has become a trademark of this internationally recognized text.

    This text provides step-by-step information for every aspect of the research process, from identifying and devising research questions to analyzing data and compiling results for presentation. Methods for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods research approaches are addressed, and real-world research questions—including historical, experimental, epidemiological, and philosophical—are presented by scholarly contributors who give suggestions for approaches to follow. Photos, anecdotes, and humorous stories are used throughout the text to put students at ease and emphasize key points through practical applications. Enhancements to the seventh edition include the following:
    • Updated information and techniques for electronic searches to ensure students use best research practices
    • New information on meta-analysis and the benefits of journal-style writing that teach readers to evaluate and prepare data for scholarly journals and publication
    • Special attention to ethical issues to help readers understand the regulations involved in using human and animal subjects
    • New information on logistic regression that aids in the understanding of complex ideas
    • Further explanation of qualitative and mixed-methods research approaches, in addition to quantitative approaches, to ensure readers use the most appropriate methodology for their research
    The content of the seventh edition maintains and expands upon the logical content progression that has made Research Methods in Physical Activity the leading text in the field. Part I presents an overview of the research process, including problem development, preparation of the research plan, and understanding ethical issues in research and writing. Part II introduces statistical and measurement issues in research, and part III presents various types of or approaches to research and methodology from expert researchers in the field. Part IV includes a writing guide for result findings and details how to develop and organize research papers and presentations. Statistical tables and guides are available in the appendix.

    To aid instructors, Research Methods in Physical Activity, Seventh Edition, includes a suite of ancillary materials featuring an instructor guide, test package, an extra data set for instructors who wish to create specialized learning activities, and presentation package plus image bank.

    Research Methods in Physical Activity, Seventh Edition, instills in students the confidence to devise, collect, analyze, and present their research in a competent manner by systematically guiding them through the research process. It is an essential text for all emerging researchers in physical activity.

    Audience

    Text for upper-undergraduate or graduate students in physical activity, exercise science, fitness, physical therapy, rehabilitation, and occupational therapy programs; also a reference for professionals in those areas.

    Table of Contents

    Preface
    Study Tips
    Acknowledgments
    Part I: Overview of the Research Process
    Chapter 1. Introduction to Research in Physical Activity
    The Nature of Research
    Unscientific Versus Scientific Methods of Problem Solving
    Alternative Models of Research
    Types of Research
    Overview of the Research Process
    Parts of a Thesis: A Reflection on the Steps in the Research Process
    Summary
    Chapter 2. Developing the Problem and Using the Literature
    Identifying the Research Problem
    Purpose of the Literature Review
    Basic Literature Search Strategies
    Steps in the Literature Search
    Summary
    Chapter 3. Presenting the Problem
    Choosing the Title
    Writing the Introduction
    Stating the Research Problem
    Presenting the Research Hypothesis
    Operationally Defining Terms
    Basic Assumptions, Delimitations, and Limitations
    Justifying the Significance of the Study
    Differences Between the Thesis and the Research Article
    Summary
    Chapter 4. Formulating the Method
    How to Present Methodological Details
    Why Planning the Methods Is Important
    Two Principles for Planning Experiments
    Describing Participants
    Describing Instruments
    Describing Procedures
    Describing Design and Analysis
    Establishing Cause and Effect
    Interaction of Participants, Measurements, and Treatments
    Summary
    Chapter 5. Ethical Issues in Research and Scholarship
    Seven Areas of Scientific Dishonesty
    Ethical Issues Regarding Copyright
    Model for Considering Scientific Misconduct
    Working With Faculty
    Protecting Human Participants
    Protecting Animal Subjects
    Summary
    Part II: Statistical and Measurement Concepts in Research
    Chapter 6. Becoming Acquainted With Statistical Concepts
    Why We Need Statistics
    Use of Computers in Statistical Analysis
    Description and Inference Are Not Statistical Techniques
    Ways to Select a Sample
    Justifying Post Hoc Explanations
    Difficulty of Random Sampling and Assignment: How Good Does It Have to Be?
    Unit of Analysis
    Measures of Central Tendency and Variability
    Basic Concepts of Statistical Techniques
    Data for Use in the Remaining Statistical Chapters
    Summary
    Chapter 7. Statistical Issues in Research Planning and Evaluation
    Probability
    Meaningfulness (Effect Size)
    Power
    Using Information in the Context of the Study
    Summary
    Chapter 8. Relationships Among Variables
    What Correlational Research Investigates
    Understanding the Nature of Correlation
    What the Coefficient of Correlation Means
    Using Correlation for Prediction
    Partial Correlation
    Semipartial Correlation
    Procedures for Multiple Regression
    Logistic Regression
    Discriminant Function Analysis
    Multivariate Forms of Correlation
    Summary
    Chapter 9. Differences Among Groups
    How Statistics Test Differences
    Types of t Tests
    Interpreting t
    Relationship of t and r
    Analysis of Variance
    Analysis of Covariance
    Experimentwise Error Rate
    Understanding Multivariate Techniques
    Summary
    Chapter 10. Nonparametric Techniques
    Chi Square: Testing the Observed Versus the Expected
    Procedures for Rank-Order Data
    Correlation
    Differences Among Groups
    Summary
    Chapter 11. Measuring Research Variables
    Validity
    Reliability
    Methods of Establishing Reliability
    Intertester Reliability (Objectivity)
    Standard Error of Measurement
    Using Standard Scores to Compare Performance
    Measuring Movement
    Measuring Written Responses
    Measuring Affective Behavior
    Scales for Measuring Affective Behavior
    Measuring Knowledge
    Item Response Theory
    Summary
    Part III: Types of Research
    Chapter 12. Sociohistorical Process in Sport Studies
    David K. Wiggins and Daniel S. Mason
    Development of the Discipline Theory and Sport History
    Relationship Between Theory and Method
    Research Sources
    Research Topics
    Research Design
    Data Analysis and Interpretation
    Research Findings
    Exemplary Studies in Sport History
    Summary
    Chapter 13. Philosophical Research in Physical Activity
    R. Scott Kretchmar and Tim Elcombe
    Identifying the Purposes of Philosophical Research
    Identifying the Range of Philosophical Research
    Locating a Research Problem
    Analyzing a Research Problem
    Summary
    Chapter 14. Research Synthesis (Meta-Analysis)
    Using Meta-Analysis to Synthesize Research
    Presenting Effect Size Data
    Summary
    Chapter 15. Surveys
    Questionnaires
    Electronic Surveys
    Delphi Method
    Personal Interviews
    Normative Surveys
    Summary
    Chapter 16. Other Descriptive Research Methods
    Developmental Research
    Case Studies
    Job Analysis
    Observational Research
    Unobtrusive Research Techniques
    Correlational Research
    Summary
    Chapter 17. Physical Activity Epidemiology Research
    Barbara E. Ainsworth and Charles E. Matthews
    Observational Versus Experimental Research
    What Is Epidemiology?
    Physical Activity Measurement Definitions
    Assessment of Physical Activity
    Epidemiological Study Designs
    Reading and Interpreting a Physical Activity Epidemiological Study
    Summary
    Chapter 18. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research
    Sources of Invalidity
    Threats to Internal Validity
    Threats to External Validity
    Controlling Threats to Internal Validity
    Controlling Threats to External Validity
    Types of Designs
    Summary
    Chapter 19. Qualitative Research
    Procedures in Qualitative Research
    Data Analysis
    Concluding Remarks
    Summary
    Chapter 20. Mixed-Methods Research
    Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
    Designing Mixed-Methods Research
    Issues in Mixed-Methods Research
    Examples of Mixed-Methods Research
    Summary
    Part IV: Writing the Research Report
    Chapter 21. Completing the Research Process
    Research Proposal
    Thesis and Dissertation Proposal
    Advisor and Dissertation Committee
    The Good Scholar Must Research and Write
    Scientific Writing
    First Things Are Sometimes Best Done Last
    Developing a Good Introduction
    Describing the Method
    The Proposal Process
    Preparing and Presenting Qualitative Research Proposals
    Writing Proposals for Granting Agencies
    Submitting Internal Proposals
    Completing Your Thesis or Dissertation
    Results and Discussion
    Handling Multiple Experiments in a Single Report
    Using Tables and Figures
    Summary
    Chapter 22. Ways of Reporting Research
    Basic Writing Guidelines
    A Brief Word About Acknowledgments
    Thesis and Dissertation Format: Traditional Versus Journal
    Helpful Hints for Successful Journal Writing
    Revising Research Papers
    Writing Abstracts
    Making Oral and Poster Presentations
    Summary
    Appendix: Statistical Tables
    References
    Author Index
    Subject Index
    About the Authors

    About the Author

    Jerry R. Thomas, EdD, is professor and dean of the College of Education at the University of North Texas. Besides writing the previous editions of this book, Thomas has authored more than 200 publications, 120 of which are refereed publications with numerous contributions in research methods. In 1999 he was named the C.H. McCloy Lecturer for his production of research throughout his career. Thomas has been editor in chief of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport and a reviewer for most major research journals in kinesiology and numerous journals in psychology. He has also served as president of the National Academy of Kinesiology, American Kinesiology Association, AAHPERD Research Consortium, and North American Society for Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. In 1990 he was named an AAHPERD Alliance Scholar and in 2003 was named a NASPSPA Distinguished Scholar based on lifetime achievement in research. Thomas received an honorary doctorate of science from his undergraduate institution, Furman University, in the spring of 2015.

    Jack K. Nelson, EdD, is professor emeritus in the department of kinesiology at Louisiana State University. Nelson conducted and published research and taught research methods for 35 years. He has been an adviser on more than 50 doctoral dissertations and more than 50 master’s theses. He has more than 80 publications and has served as editor of research publications. A fellow in the Research Consortium, he has been a member of AAHPERD, the American Educational Research Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine. He has also served as president of the Association for Research, Administration, Professional Councils and Societies (now AAALF) and as vice president of AAHPERD.

    Stephen Silverman, EdD, has taught and written about research methods for more than 30 years. He is a professor of education at Teachers College at Columbia University and has conducted research on teaching in physical education focusing on how children learn motor skill and develop attitudes. He has published more than 75 research articles in addition to many books and book chapters. Silverman is a fellow and past president of the National Academy of Kinesiology and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Research Consortium and a fellow of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). A former coeditor of the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education and editor in chief of the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Silverman was an AERA Physical Education scholar lecturer, a Research Consortium scholar lecturer, and Weiss lecturer and Alliance Scholar for AAHPERD.

    Ancillaries

    All ancillaries are free to course adopters and available at www.HumanKinetics.com/ResearchMethodsInPhysicalActivity

    Instructor guide. Includes chapter overviews, sample course syllabi, supplemental class activities, a supplemental data set, and student handouts.

    Test package. Includes 302 questions in multiple-choice and essay formats. The test package is available as a rich text file, through Respondus software that allows instructors to create their own tests by selecting from the question pool, or for use through a learning management system such as Blackboard or Moodle.

    Presentation package plus image bank. The presentation package includes 332 slides of lecture notes for instructor use that can be edited, rearranged, and distributed in class. An image bank with most of the artwork, tables, and examples from the text is also available for incorporation into class notes, lectures, and slides. The images are sorted by chapter and can be used and customized based on specific course requirements.

    The presentation package plus image bank is also available for purchase • ISBN 978-1-4925-0614-0