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Skeletal Muscle-2nd Edition

Skeletal Muscle-2nd Edition


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    Skeletal Muscle: Form and Function, Second Edition, provides readers with a detailed understanding of the different facets of muscle physiology. Meticulously researched and updated, this text examines motoneuron and muscle structure and function. It is intended for those who need to know about skeletal muscle—from undergraduate and graduate students gaining advanced knowledge in kinesiology to physiotherapists, physiatrists, and other professionals whose work demands understanding of muscle form and function.

    A unique feature of this book is that it combines basic sciences (anatomy, physiology, biophysics, and chemistry) with clinical applications (detection of disease and genetic mutations and training and rehabilitation). Each chapter ends with a section on clinical and other applied aspects of the information presented in that chapter, showing, for example, how specific defects of muscle or nerve cells can result in certain clinical disorders. The result is a thorough understanding of skeletal muscle structure and physiology.

    This new edition includes the following:
    • The latest research in all areas of muscle physiology
    • Major revisions of chapters covering muscle contraction, muscle metabolism, and fatigue
    • More than 200 drawings (many of them original) and 30 photos (mostly micrographs), all of which clarify and augment the text
    • Pedagogical aids to facilitate comprehension, including key points in the margins, special interest points, an index, and a greatly expanded glossary

    Skeletal Muscle: Form and Function, Second Edition, is divided into three parts. Part I presents the structures of the neuromuscular system: muscle, motoneurons, and neuromuscular junctions and sensory receptors as well as the development of these structures. Part II examines muscle function, including neuromuscular transmission, muscle contraction, motor units, and muscle metabolism. Part III focuses on the adaptability of the neuromuscular system. Among the issues it explores are fatigue, loss and recovery of muscle innervation, trophism, muscle training, and injury and repair.

    The depth and breadth of the contents, combined with the practical applications, make this book the leading authority on the structure, electrophysiology, and adaptability of human skeletal muscle. It is an excellent text for students and a practical and up-to-date reference for professionals.


    Textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in muscle physiology. Also a professional reference for exercise and muscle physiologists and allied health practitioners.

    Table of Contents

    Part I: Structure and Development
    Chapter 1. Muscle Architecture and Muscle Fiber Anatomy
    • Muscle Architecture
    • Muscle Connective Tissue
    • Basement Membrane
    • Plasmalemma
    • Myofibrils
    • Tubular Systems
    • Nuclei and Mitochondria
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 2. The Motoneuron
    • General Features of Motoneurons
    • Motoneuron Soma
    • Cytoskeletal Proteins in the Motoneuron
    • Axon, Dendrites, and Glia
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 3. The Neuromuscular Junction
    • General Features of the Neuromuscular Junction
    • Muscle Fiber Acetylcholine Receptors
    • The Basement Membrane at the Neuromuscular Junction
    • Axon Terminal
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 4. Muscle Receptors
    • The Muscle Spindle
    • The Golgi Tendon Organ
    • Free Nerve Endings
    • Role of Muscle Receptors During Locomotor Activity
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 5. Muscle Formation
    • Step 1: Mesoderm Is Induced from Ectoderm
    • Step 2: A Portion of Mesoderm Forms Somites, Then Develops Into Skeletal Muscle
    • Step 3: The Myogenic (Muscle Forming) Cells Proliferate and Then Differentiate
    • Step 4: The Body Plan Is Laid Down
    • Step 5: Muscles Are Assembled
    • Postnatal Development of Muscle
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 6. Development of Muscle Innervation
    • Step 1: Inductive Signals Pass From Mesoderm to Ectoderm
    • Step 2: The Neural Tube Forms From Thickening and Invagination of the Dorsal Ectoderm
    • Step 3: Nerve Cells Proliferate and Then Migrate
    • Step 4: Axons Grow Out From the Spinal Cord Along the Extracellular Matrix
    • Step 5: The Axons Establish Connections With the Muscle Fibers
    • Step 6: Redundant Synapses and Motoneurons Are Eliminated
    • Applied Physiology

    Part II: Putting Muscles to Work
    Chapter 7. Ion Channels, Pumps, and Binding Proteins
    • General Properties of Channels and Pumps
    • Sodium Channels
    • The Sodium Pump (Na+-K+ Pump)
    • Potassium Channels
    • Calcium Channels and Pumps
    • Calcium-Binding Proteins
    • Calcium Pumps
    • Anion Channels
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 8. Axoplasmic Transport
    • Confirmation and Categorization of Axoplasmic Transport
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 9. Resting and Action Potentials
    • Resting Membrane Potential
    • The Action Potential
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 10. Neuromuscular Transmission
    • Acetylcholine Release
    • Postsynaptic Events
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 11. Muscle Contraction
    • Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction
    • The Cross-Bridge Theory of Skeletal Muscle
    • The Key Contractile Proteins: Myosin and Actin
    • Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    • The Contractile Response
    • The Length Dependence of Force
    • Dynamic Contractions
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 12. Motor Units
    • Organization of Motor Units
    • Physiological and Biochemical Properties of Motor Units
    • Classification of Motor Units
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 13. Motor Unit Recruitment
    • Detection of Motor Unit Activation
    • The Size Principle
    • Maximal Voluntary Contraction
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 14. Muscle Metabolism
    • Energy Required for Muscle Contraction
    • Replacing Adenosine Triphosphate
    • Integration of the Metabolic Systems
    • Regulation of the Metabolic Systems
    • How Much Energy Is Needed?
    • Applied Physiology

    Part III: The Adaptable Neuromuscular System
    Chapter 15. Fatigue
    • Defining Fatigue
    • Central Fatigue
    • Peripheral Fatigue
    • Excitation-Contraction Coupling Failure
    • Biochemical Changes in Muscle Fibers
    • Recovery From Fatigue
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 16. Loss of Muscle Innervation
    • Changes in Motor Axons and Neuromuscular Junctions
    • Changes in Muscle Fibers
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 17. Recovery of Muscle Innervation
    • Nerve Regeneration
    • Collateral Reinnervation
    • Changes in the Muscle Fibers Following Reinnervation
    • Motor Unit Properties Following Reinnervation
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 18. Trophism
    • Motoneuron Effects on Muscle
    • Muscle Effects on Motoneurons
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 19. Disuse
    • Studies in Human Subjects
    • Studies in Animals
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 20. Muscle Training
    • Muscle Strength and Power
    • Human Endurance Training
    • Training Studies in Animals
    • Adaptive Changes in DNA and RNA Processing
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 21. Injury and Repair
    • Muscle Contraction-Induced Damage
    • Muscle Injury From External Causes
    • Applied Physiology

    Chapter 22. Aging
    • Changes in Muscle With Aging
    • Motoneuron Changes in Aging
    • Changes in Axons and Neuromuscular Junctions
    • Applied Physiology

    About the Author

    Brian R. MacIntosh, PhD, is associate dean of the graduate program and professor for the faculty of kinesiology at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada. MacIntosh is on the cutting edge of research in skeletal muscle and has published more than 50 papers and numerous book chapters in muscle and exercise physiology. He has been teaching undergraduate and graduate courses in these areas for 25 years and is a member of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, the Canadian Physiological Society, the American Physiological Society, the American College of Sports Medicine, the Biophysical Society, and the Human Powered Vehicles Association. He is also an associate editor for the Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology and a former board member for the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology.

    Phillip Gardiner, PhD, is director of the Health, Leisure & Human Performance Research Institute at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Manitoba. He is also an adjunct professor of physiology, a member of the Spinal Cord Research Center in the faculty of medicine at the University of Manitoba, and a Canada Research Chair, a position given to internationally renowned researchers. Gardiner is past president of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and previous coeditor in chief of the Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. He has published extensively in the area of neuromuscular adaptations and authored the book Neuromuscular Aspects of Physical Activity.

    Alan J. McComas, MB, is emeritus professor of medicine (in neurology) at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. McComas has more than 40 years of research experience in nerve and muscle. Among his accomplishments in research are devising a method for estimating the number of human motor units in human muscle, showing the importance of the electrogenic sodium pump in delaying fatigue, and carrying out early microelectrode studies of human muscle fibers. He has held named lectureships and is a member of the Society for Neuroscience.


    “...the leading authority on the structure, electrophysiology, and adaptability of human skeletal muscle.”


    "Overall, this text will serve as a solid, comprehensive text for undergraduates and graduate students, and as a practical reference for its professional audience."

    Coral Murrant
    Department of Human Health and Nutritional Science
    University of Guelph