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Vision and Goal-Directed Movement

Vision and Goal-Directed Movement

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    To interact with the environment, an individual must code, store, and translate spatial information into the appropriate motor commands for achieving an outcome. Working from this premise, Vision and Goal-Directed Movement: Neurobehavioral Perspectives discusses how visual perception, attention, and memory are linked to the processes of movement preparation and execution.

    With contributions from active researchers in movement science, Vision and Goal-Directed Movement presents the latest theories on the utilization of vision in goal-directed movement control. As a resource for motor control and motor learning researchers, students, educators, and clinicians, Vision and Goal-Directed Movement offers the following:
    • Comprehensive coverage of current behavior-based literature on the visual control of goal-directed movement
    • A systematic explication of the sensory and physiological processes and systems responsible for fast, accurate, and efficient performance
    • A solid foundation for further study of the sensory and neural systems responsible for precise goal-directed behavior
    • A discussion of how current research on vision and goal-directed movement can assist in creating efficient and safe work environments
    Using research informed by neural imaging and magnetic brain stimulation, this text provides readers with a better understanding of the neural foundations for goal-directed movement, illustrates the flexibility of the human visuomotor system, and discusses how regulation of movements depends on the learning and developmental history of the performer. It begins by reviewing the works of R.S. Woodworth and the influence of his theories on current research. The majority of the chapters in the first section of the book take a behavioral and process-oriented approach to exploring goal-directed movement. The text then explores the sensory and neural foundations for goal-directed action, including issues related to both pursuit and saccadic eye movements as well as discussion of the specialization of various cortical systems for the regulation of movement. Especially relevant to professionals and scientists concerned with skill instruction and rehabilitation, the final part of the text provides a review of recent research on how and why limb control changes occur with practice and development. In addition, Vision and Goal-Directed Movement considers how the research presented can maximize precision, efficiency, and safety in workspace design.

    Vision and Goal-Directed Movement: Neurobehavioral Perspectives adds a unique offering to the literature base for motor behavior, demonstrating how advances in both behavioral and neurophysiological methods can inform theories related to the biological systems contributing to skilled performance.

    Audience

    A reference for researchers in movement science, experimental psychology, and neuroscience. A supplement text for upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level courses covering special topics.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. A Behavioral Approach to Vision and Goal-Directed Movement

    Chapter 1. The Legacy of R.S. Woodworth: The Two Component Model Revisited
    Digby Elliott, Steve Hansen, and Lawrence E.M. Grierson
    The Early Two-Component Model
    Alternative Explanations of Speed–Accuracy Relationships
    The Optimized Submovement Model
    Kinematic Evidence for Current Control
    How Ballistic Is the Initial Adjustment?
    Two Types of Current Control
    The Two-Component Model Revisited
    Future Directions

    Chapter 2. The Optimization of Speed, Accuracy and Energy in Goal-Directed Aiming
    Digby Elliott, Steve Hansen, and Michael A. Khan
    Practice and Goal-Directed Aiming
    Individual Aiming Trajectories
    Within-Performer Spatial Variability
    Do Early Events Predict Late Events?
    Lessons From the Serial Reaction Time Literature
    Optimizing Energy Expenditure and the Cost of an Error
    Conclusions and Future Directions

    Chapter 3. Visual Selective Attention and Action
    Timothy N. Welsh and Daniel J. Weeks
    Attention
    Action-Centered Selective Attention
    Summary and Future Directions

    Chapter 4. Vision and Movement Planning
    J. Greg Anson, Rachel Burgess, and Rebekah L. Scott
    Two Visual Systems
    Vision and Movement Planning: Behavioral Perspectives
    Vision and Movement Planning in Nonhuman Primates
    Vision, Movement Planning, and Memory
    Memory-Guided Reaching
    Memory Mechanisms and Planning
    Precuing, Memory, and Movement Planning
    Summary and Future Directions

    Chapter 5. Memory-Guided Reaching: What the Visuomotor System Knows and How Long It Knows It
    Matthew Heath, Kristina A. Neely, Olav Krigolson, and Gordon Binsted
    The Temporal Durability of Stored Target Information
    Visual Awareness and the Evocation of Visually Guided and Memory-Guided Reaches
    Visual Coordinates or a Fully Specified Movement Plan
    Memory-Guided Reaches and the Relationship Between End-Point Error and Corticomotor Potentials
    Conclusions and Future Directions

    Chapter 6. The Preparation and Control of Multiple-Target Aiming Movements
    Michael A. Khan, Werner F. Helsen, and Ian M. Franks
    The Influence of Response Complexity on Reaction Time
    Online Programming Hypothesis
    Movement Integration
    Planning and Movement Integration
    Future Directions

    Chapter 7. Rapid Regulation of Limb Trajectories: Response to Perturbation
    Steve Hansen, Lawrence E.M. Grierson, Michael A. Khan, and Digby Elliott
    Visual Occlusion
    Physically Changing the Target
    Visual Illusions
    Changing the Visual Context
    Deceiving the Control Processes
    Online Perturbations
    Manipulating Certainty of the Visual Environment
    Future Directions

    Chapter 8. Visual Field Asymmetries in the Control of Target-Directed Movements
    Michael A. Khan and Gordon Binsted
    Peripheral Vision Versus Central Vision
    Upper Visual Field Versus Lower Visual Field
    Conclusions and Future Directions

    Part II. Sensory and Neural Systems for Vision and Action

    Chapter 9. Prediction in Ocular Pursuit
    Simon J. Bennett and Graham R. Barnes
    Gaze-Orienting Eye Movements
    Prediction in Ocular Pursuit
    Anticipatory Smooth Pursuit Onset
    Anticipatory Smooth Pursuit During Transient Occlusion
    Predictive Smooth Pursuit During Transient Occlusion
    Coordination Between Smooth Pursuit and Saccades
    Model of Ocular Pursuit
    Neural Pathways for Ocular Pursuit
    Neural Pathways for Ocular Pursuit During Transient Occlusion
    Pursuit Against a Background: Suppression of the Optokinetic Reflex
    Oculomanual Pursuit
    Summary and Future Directions

    Chapter 10. Oculomotor Contributions to Reaching: Close Is Good Enough
    Gordon Binsted, Kyle Brownell, Tyler Rolheiser, and Matthew Heath
    Common Anatomies, Divergent Functions
    Eye–Hand Coupling Behavior
    Frames of Reference Hypothesis
    Common Command Hypothesis
    Afferent Information Hypothesis
    Strategy Hypothesis
    Conclusions: Close Is Good Enough
    Future Directions

    Chapter 11. Eye–Hand Coordination in Goal-Directed Action: Normal and Pathological Functioning
    Werner F. Helsen, Peter Feys, Elke Heremans, and Ann Lavrysen
    Retinal Versus Extraretinal Information
    Visuomotor Control in Normal Functioning
    Summary of Visuomotor Control in Normal Functioning
    Visuomotor Control in Cerebellar Pathology
    Summary of Visuomotor Control in Cerebellar Pathology
    Conclusions and Future Directions

    Chapter 12. Lateralization of Goal-Directed Movement
    Robert L. Sainburg
    Neural Lateralization
    Motor Lateralization
    Biological Correlates of Handedness
    Neurobehavioral Processes Lateralized in Handedness
    Conclusions
    Future Directions

    Chapter 13. Visual Illusions and Action
    David A. Westwood
    Historical Context: Perception and Action
    Visual Illusions as a Tool for Studying Perception and Action in the Intact Brain
    Illusions and Action: Emerging Themes and Issues
    Future Directions

    Chapter 14. Two Visual Streams: Neuropsychological Evidence
    David P. Carey
    Two Visual Pathways in the Cerebral Cortex
    Early Arguments Against the Milner and Goodale Account
    Double Dissociations in Perception and Action
    Later Controversies: Diagnosing Optic Ataxia
    Summary and Future Directions

    Part III. Learning, Development, and Application

    Chapter 15. Visual Information in the Acquisition of Goal-Directed Action
    Luc Tremblay
    Background
    Utilization of Multisensory Information
    Attention and Performance
    Individual Differences in Utilization of Sensory Information
    Modulating the Utilization of Sensory Information Does Not Require Physical Practice
    Utilization of Sensory Information as a Function of Practice
    Conclusions and Future Directions

    Chapter 16. Early Development of the Use of Visual Information for Action and Perception
    Margot van Wermeskerken, John van der Kamp, and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh
    Ecological Approach to Perception
    Two Visual Systems
    Development of the Use of Visual Information for Action and Perception in Infancy
    Conclusions and Future Directions

    Chapter 17. Motor Learning Through Observation
    Dana Maslovat, Spencer Hayes, Robert R. Horn, and Nicola J. Hodges
    Cognitive Mediated Learning
    Visuomotor Coupling and Direct Learning
    Visual Perception Perspective
    Task Characteristics
    Conclusions and Future Directions

    Chapter 18. Optimizing Performance Through Work Space Design
    James L. Lyons
    A Little History
    Human–Machine System
    Newer Issues and Future Directions

    About the Author

    Digby Elliott, PhD, is a professor of motor control and behavioral neuroscience in the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences at Liverpool John Moores University (Liverpool, United Kingdom). Previously, he was the Canada research chair in motor control and special populations at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario), where he was also a professor emeritus. He has served aspresident of the Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology (SCAPPS) and as president of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA).

    Elliott has over 30 years of research experience in the area of motor control with over 200 peer-reviewed articles in publication. He has held visiting professorships at universities throughout the world, most recently at the University of Otago in New Zealand as a William Evans scholar in 2000 and at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium as a senior research fellow in 1999. Elliott was awarded the Wood Award for Research Excellence in 2000 from the Down Syndrome Research Foundation.

    Elliott and his wife, Elaine, reside in Bancroft, Ontario. In his free time, he enjoys hiking, snorkeling, and playing with his seven grandchildren.

    Michael Khan, PhD, is a professor of motor control and learning and head of the School of Sport, Health, and Exercise Sciences at BangorUniversity in Wales, United Kingdom.

    He has more than 15 years of research experience in the area of motor control. Collaborating with researchers in the United Kingdom, Europe, and North America, Khan has focused his research on the investigation of cognitive processes underlying movement control. He has published more than 30 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and conference proceedings. Khan has presented his research as an invited lecturer in the United Kingdom, Europe, North America, and the Caribbean.

    A sport enthusiast, especially in West Indian cricket, Kahn also enjoys playing and coaching squash. He was a former top national squash player for Trinidad and Tobago and is currently very active as a coach at the junior level. He and his wife, Martha, reside at Tregarth in Gwynedd, Wales.